The Jordan River and its major tributary, the Yarmuk, is the clearest manifestation of hydropolitics and the dangers it presents for international river basins. The Jordan has a modest flow discharging only 580 million m3 of water while an additional 475 million m3 is discharged by the Yarmuk. However, since (in various degrees) the co-riparians to the rivers are Syria, Lebanon, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the Palestinians and Israel and since all of them have been in a state of war before and since Israel became an independent state in 1948, the Jordan's waters add another dimension to the multi-faceted conflict between Arabs and Jews. The pressure of the co-riparians for the limited waters of the Jordan-Yarmuk is enormous, and this has led to over-utilization of the drainage basin. As a result skirmishes between Israel and Syria over the utilization of the river were frequent during the early 1950s and early 1960s. There is no all-inclusive agreement common to all the co-riparians over the division of the water from the Jordan-Yarmuk river system, but there are partial agreements and quasi-agreements between pairs of states such as Syria and Jordan and Israel and Jordan. The conflict over the Jordan's water is not one that is in the process of developing, as are the conflicts which are presumed to be inevitable for the Nile or Tigris-Euphrates basins-here the conflict has determined the behaviour of the co-riparians for almost forty years. The worsening situation of water supply among all the co-riparians-the result of consecutive droughts and an accelerated population growth-is only going to increase the magnitude of the conflicting interests of the co-riparians. The scarcity of water in the Jordan-Yarmuk system has made water supply a strategic issue related to the national security of the partners to this basin. We agree with the observation that 'under severe shortage the Jordan basin water becomes a highly symbolic, contagious, aggregated, intense, salient, complicated zero-sum power and prestige-packed crisis issue, highly prone to conflict and extremely difficult to resolve' (Naff 1990).