CHAPTER 1

The problem

The period from Jack Cade's rebellion in 1450 till the battle of Bosworth in 1485 has traditionally been labelled as that of the “Wars of the Roses”. This conflict was allegedly between the rival houses of Lancaster and York, the descendants respectively of two sons of Edward III: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, whose son, grandson and great-grandson ruled England as Henry IV, Henry V and Henry VI from 1399 till 1461; and Edmund, Duke of York, whose remoter descendants reigned as Edward IV and Richard III from 1461, with a brief interlude in 1470-71 when Henry VI was restored, until Richard's defeat at Bosworth in 1485. There is no good evidence that anyone at the time actually referred to “The Wars of the Roses”, though the Lancastrians did use a red rose as an emblem, and the Yorkists a white one; and Henry VII's “Tudor Rose” displayed both colours as a symbol of restored unity. Nevertheless, however we try to escape from it, the concept of the Wars of the Roses continues to dominate our thinking about fifteenth-century England. This is hardly surprising, for the years from 1450 to 1485 experienced a degree of political instability unparalleled since the Norman Conquest. In these 35 years, the reigning king was deposed on five occasions; and one, Henry VI, contrived to be deposed twice! Temporary breakdowns of government had occurred at other periods, even outbreaks of civil war; and in the previous century two kings, Edward II and Richard II, had actually been deposed; but such a rapid series of dynastic upheavals seems unique to the midfifteenth century.

In the more than 500 years which have elapsed since the Wars of

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Wars of the Roses
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgements vii
  • Chapter 1 - The Problem 1
  • Chapter 2 - The Events: What Actually Happened? 16
  • Chapter 3 - The Social and Political Situation in the Fifteenth Century 39
  • Chapter 4 - The Problem of Authority in the Middle Ages 51
  • Chapter 5 - Failings of Government 58
  • Epilogue: the Tudor Solution 72
  • References 77
  • Further Reading 80
  • Index 83
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 88

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.