I am grateful to the Humanities Faculty of the University of Ulster for providing me with the funds and the time to finish this book.
Permission has been granted by Faber & Faber to reprint Larkin's 'An Arundel Tomb' and Auden's 'In Memory of W.B. Yeats'; by Penguin for sonnet 2 of Geoffrey Hill's 'Funeral Music'; by W.W. Norton for e. e. cummings's 'No. 9' from No Thanks; by New Directions for extracts from W.C. Williams's 'The Corn Harvest' and 'The Red Wheelbarrow'; and by Oxford University Press for Charles Tomlinson's 'Lines'.
Professor Robert Welch, my head of department, deserves some thanks, and Professor Ron Carter of Nottingham University has been an encouraging and helpful editor. Nothing at all would have been possible without Louie and Bill Bradford. Jan Elliott was, as usual, tolerant and valuable in the true Ulster tradition.