European Union Negotiations: Processes, Networks and Institutions

By Ole Elgström; Christer Jönsson | Go to book overview

12

The Cotonou agreement

Asymmetric negotiations and the impact of norms

Ole Elgström


Introduction

Since 1975 the so-called Lomé conventions (the first agreement was signed in Lomé, the capital of Togo) have constituted the most significant part of the European Union's relations with the Third World. They have been heralded by EU officials as showpieces of development assistance. These aid and trade agreements are of major importance for the development efforts of a large number of countries - 46 in 1975, 71 today - in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP). In the 1990s proposals for radical change were introduced and these were seen as threatening the traditional foundations of the Lomé agreements. After long, tortuous negotiations a new agreement was agreed upon in February 2000. The new convention, signed by the parties in Cotonou later the same year, bears witness to novel ideas but is nevertheless a continuation of the traditional EU- ACP 'partnership'.

The aim of this chapter is to analyse the post-Lomé agreement, and the processes leading up to it, using a negotiation perspective. It will explain the contents of the agreement, and the changes that have taken place since the previous agreements, by highlighting major elements of the bargaining situation facing the parties and how this situation has developed over time.

The argument contained herein includes two basic contentions. The first is that, in general, the Lomé negotiations reflect the impact of norms and identities and not only the effects of traditional bargaining power. Norms play an important role in forming EU negotiation positions and EU responses to ACP initiatives. It is argued that a gradual transformation has occurred in EU-ACP relations. The moral norms and powerful self-images that created a European identity in relation to the former colonies - and emphasized concepts of partnership and obligations - have been weakened, while other norms, stressing liberalism and democratization, have become more influential in the negotiations. The normative basis for EU policy towards the Third World has been thoroughly reshaped. The result is the introduction of World Trade Organization (WTO) compatible free-trade rules and stricter conditionality. The partner identity, institutionalized into the EU aid-providing machinery, has however acted as a bulwark against total disruption of the tradition-bound Lomé relationship.

-183-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
European Union Negotiations: Processes, Networks and Institutions
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 228

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.