Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf

By A. J. Cochran; M. R. Farrally | Go to book overview

7

A biomechanical analysis of the respiratory pattern during the golf swing

Kazuaki Kawashima

Biomechanics Laboratory, College of Agriculture and Veterinary
Medicine, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Japan


Shunichi Takeshita

Physical Education Laboratory, Kokusaigakuin Junior College of
Saitama, Omiya, Japan


Hirofumi Zaitsu

Kato International Design Inc., Tokyo, Japan


and Tetsuo Meshizuka

Graduate School, Cyukyo Women's University, Obu, Japan

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory movement during a golf shot. Eight males were tested using the 5 iron club for golf. The subjects were four skilled golfers (handicap 7±0.7) and four unskilled golfers (handicap 29±4) for this study. To analyze the point of the address top, ball impact, and finish during the swing, the swing phase of the VTR tapes (60 fps) was used and Electromyographic (EMG) rectified activities of four muscles, l.m.deltoideus(del), l.m.extensor carpi ulnaris (ecu) and, r.l.m. obliquus externus abdominis (oea), and respiratory waves were recorded during the golf swing. The EMG signals were amplified and rectified before being measured with a digital oscilloscope. The results of this study indicated the following conclusion: rectified and averaged EMG of oea (1), and oea(r) before impact was less than the discharge in case of skilled golfers than unskilled golfers (p<.05). Respiratory waves during golf swing motions, appeared at the impact point or prior to impact. It was noted that the skilled golfers had shallow breathing in swing motion, but unskilled golfers had deep irregular breathing (p<.05).

Key words: Respiratory, EMG Rectified, Golf swing.


1 Introduction

It is very important to recognize the respiratory pattern in order to swing timely and rhythmically during a golf performance. The golf swing needs to change timing to strain or relax the muscles. So, respiratory pattern is thought to have an effect on the golf swing. Shudel (1934) reported that the respiratory pattern during the golf swing was similar to the pattern that appeared when the breath was stopped after take a deep breath and Masuda (1971) concluded that the product of the respiratory muscle could be used to describe the efficiency of the swing technique, and best performances would thus demonstrate the effectual respiratory muscle. A Japanese lady professional golfer Okamoto (1982) has also mentioned that she always swings unconsciously after some light breathing out. She

Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf. Edited by A.J. Cochran and M.R. Farrally. Published in 1994 by E & FN Spon, London. ISBN 0 419 18790 1

-46-

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