Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf

By A. J. Cochran; M. R. Farrally | Go to book overview

inertia of these clubs can only accentuate the poor swing of the amateur who is unable to control his present clubs by increasing the forces placed upon him. What would be needed is exactly the opposite-a reduction in the forces on the poor golfer enabling him to control his swing better and so progress to the next category of swing.

A second conclusion arises from the disparity in the swings of the categories. Clubs derived from robotic tests using ideal swings are hardly likely to be suitable for two and possibly three of the four categories that we have identified, as robot testing machine do not react at all to the forces applied to them by the club during the swing, whereas human beings certainly do.


7 References
1.
Jorgensen, T., On the dynamics of the swing of a golf club. Am. J. Phys, 38(5) p644. 1970
2.
Williams, D. The dynamics of the golf swing. Quart. J. Mech. Appld. Math. XX(2), p247, 1967
3.
Vaughan, C.L. A three dimensional analysis of the forces and torques applied by a golfer during the downswing. Proc 7th Int Cong Biomech. Univ Press Baltimore. p 325. 1981.
4.
Miller, D.I., Petak, K., Three-dimensional cinematography, American Assoc. for Health, P.E., and Recreation, Kinesiology III, 1973, p 14-19
5.
Abdel-Aziz, Y.I., Karara, H.M. Direct linear transformation from comparator co-ordinates into object space co-ordinates in close range photogrammetry. Proc. ASP/VI Symp. on Close Range Photogrammetry. Urbana, Illinois, 1971
6
Naftel, A.J., Boot, J.C., An iterative linear transformation algorithm for solution of the collinearity operators. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 57(7), 1991.
7
Mather J.S.B., Cooper, M.A.J. The response of club and golfer to the forces generated in the golf swing. Proc. 2nd Int Symp. on 3-D analysis of human movement. Poitiers. 1993.
8
American Society of Photogrammetry, Handbook of Photogrammetry,
9
Wittenburg, J., Dynamics of systems of rigid bodies, Teubner, Stuttgart, 1977. p29
10
Lancaster, P., Salkauskas, K., Curve and surface fitting, Academic press, 1986 p106-111

8 Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge the Wilson Sporting Goods Co of Chicago who sponsored part of this work, Dr. J.J. Webster of the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Nottingham for his help on finite elements, Dr. Martin Smith of the Department of Civil Engineering for his help in photogrammetry and the use of surveying instrumentation, and to Mr. D. Vardy and Mr. A. Smith of the Department of Psychology for their help with experimental instrumentation and testing.

-70-

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