Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf

By A. J. Cochran; M. R. Farrally | Go to book overview

39

The dynamic performance of the golf shaft during the downswing

J.H. Butler and D.C. Winfield

True Temper Sports, Olive Branch, Mississippi, USA

Abstract

This paper analyzes the performance of golf shafts by using the computer as well as experimentation. The finite element method was used to analyze the effect centrifugal loading has on the natural frequency of the club during the swing. An experimental technique was established to measure the shaft deflection and twisting during the swing. Different variables relating to the overall dynamic performance of the shaft during the downswing were analyzed and discussed.

Keywords: Shaft Deflection, Centrifugal Loading, Natural Frequency, Downswing.


1 Introduction

One of the more interesting aspects of the golf shaft is how it responds dynamically during the swing. Many times oversimplifications are made concerning how the shaft deflects during the swing. The main goal of this paper is to seek a better understanding of shaft dynamics and to find key variables that characterize the dynamic performance of the shaft during the swing.


2 Computer Modeling of the Club

The finite element method was used to analyze different golf clubs in the computer. Different shafts were divided into over 100 beam elements per shaft and properties including frequency, torsional stiffness, mass, and center of gravity were verified. A typical clubhead was attached to the shafts using point inertia and rigid massless bar elements. A modal analysis was then performed to extract the frequencies and mode shapes of the club with a grip that was clamped at the butt end. Mode 1, which occurred at 4.26 Hertz, consisted of the shaft twisting 0.33 degrees for every one inch of lateral deflection closely resembling that of a cantilevered beam. This means if the shaft is

Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf. Edited by A.J. Cochran and M.R. Farrally. Published in 1994 by E & FN Spon, London. ISBN 0 419 18790 1

-259-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 643

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.