Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf

By A. J. Cochran; M. R. Farrally | Go to book overview

46

Measurement of dynamic characteristics of golf balls and identification of their mechanical models

S. Ujihashi

Tokyo Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering,
2-12-1 Oh-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152, Japan

Abstract

In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of golf balls during impact is measured by using a newly developed experimental apparatus, in which a golf ball fired by an air gun hits on a steel target of load cell and the contact force and the deformation of the golf ball are measured by the load cell and a high speed camera respectively. Some commercial golf balls are tested in order to clarify the restitution characteristics and mechanical models consisting of mass, spring and damper for golf balls are identified and are proposed to be used for investigating the dynamic characteristics of golf clubs as a subsequent stage of the research. The mechanical models would be a powerful idea which enables to simulate golf shots by a computer with higher accuracy and less computing time.

Key Words: Golf Ball, Dynamic Characteristics, Air Gun, High Speed Camera, Load Cell, Contact Force, Deformation, Mechanical Model,


1. Introduction

Recently the method of computer-aided design (CAD) has been introduced to manufacturing golf clubs in order to enhance the specifications and also to reduce the cost of designing. (Iwata et al, 1990) In the CAD the finite element analysis is generally employed and golf clubs are replaced by mathematical models so that a golf shot can be simulated by a computer. Here the basic understanding of a golf shot consisting of ball, club and swing by a human is required to create a precise mathematical model for a club and the computer simulation of a golf shot to be realistic.

In this paper the impact phenomenon between a ball and a club is focused among several boundary conditions surrounding a golf club such as the contact problem with a ball and the grip and swing problems of the human. Then it is attempted to obtain more understanding of what actually happens during golf impact and also it is examined how the impact velocity and the construction and the type of balls, which are available in golf shops, affect the restitution characteristics on the basis of most precise measurements ever tried using an original load cell and a high speed camera. Finally a mechanical model for golf balls is proposed and identified from the measured characteristics and can be used as one of the boundary conditions surrounding a club in computer simulations of a golf shot.

Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf. Edited by A.J. Cochran and M.R. Farrally. Published in 1994 by E & FN Spon, London. ISBN 0 419 18790 1

-302-

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