Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf

By A. J. Cochran; M. R. Farrally | Go to book overview

69

Subterranean insects and fungi: hidden costs and benefits to the greenkeeper

A.C. Gange

Department of Biology, Royal Holloway, University of London

Abstract

It is suggested that long-term application of fungicide to golf courses has reduced the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi in the soil. These fungi are abundant in nature and are beneficial to plants, as they increase growth and competitive ability by enhancing nutrient uptake. They also render plants more resistant to insect attack. It is shown that in one golf course the fungi were sporadic and that their occurrence may be related to insect distribution and the prevalence of desirable grasses. By re-introducing these fungi into turf, we could perhaps establish a natural pest protection system, and favour the growth of desirable grasses relative to weeds.

Keywords: Mycorrhiza, Poa annua, Agrostis stolonifera, Agrostis capillaris, Insects, Pests.


1 Introduction

The production of fine quality turf is the prime concern of the greenkeeper. However, root-feeding insects or foliar pathogenic fungi can disrupt the process of turf culture, resulting in poorer quality playing surfaces. The two most common pest insects in turfgrass are subterranean larvae of chafer beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and crane flies (Leatherjackets; Diptera: Tipulidae) (Gratwick, 1992). The presence of larvae in golf turf may pass unnoticed until damage levels are extensive. In addition, as the larvae may be deep in the soil, insecticide application is often ineffective. Although various pesticides are approved for the larval control, sometimes these may have to be applied frequently and, in large quantities, to achieve some level of adequate control. Clearly, this is not a satisfactory situation, as large volumes could result in runoff and the entry of pesticides into groundwater (e.g. Sudo and Kunimatsu, 1992).

Arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi are found in the soil of all terrestrial ecosystems, where they form mutualistic associations with the roots of over 70% of plant species (Allen, 1991). The association is considered to be beneficial to both partners, as the fungus has a much greater ability than the plant to take up nutrients (nitrate and phosphate), which it donates to the plant. In return there is a transfer of carbon from plant to fungus, as the fungus cannot obtain this on its own. However, it has been

Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf. Edited by A.J. Cochran and M.R. Farrally. Published in 1994 by E & FN Spon, London. ISBN 0 419 18790 1

-461-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 643

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.