Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf

By A. J. Cochran; M. R. Farrally | Go to book overview

74

Nutrient transport in runoff from two turfgrass species

D.T. Linde, T.L. Watschke and J.A. Borger

Penn State University, University Park, PA, USA

Abstract

Increased environmental awareness has generated a need to better understand nutrient transport from turfgrass systems, especially golf courses. This study assessed the effects turfgrasses, maintained as a golf turf fairway, had on runoff water quality. Sloped (9 to 14%) plots, each 123 m2, of creeping bentgrass, Agrostis palustris Huds., and perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., were maintained as a golf course fairway. Plots were treated on five dates with a 32-1.3-8.3 (N, P, K) fertilizer at 15.3 g/m2, and on one date with urea (46-0-0) at 10.6 g/m2. Within 24 h following fertilization, and on other selected dates from Aug 1991 to Oct 1992, plots were irrigated at 152 mm/h for the generation of runoff and leachate samples.

Water samples were analyzed for nitrate-N, phosphate, and total Kjeldahl-N. Nutrient concentrations and loading rates found in runoff and leachate samples were consistently low and generally reflected those found in the irrigation water. Concentrations of NO3-N, phosphate, and total Kjeldahl-N rarely exceeded 7, 5, and 2 mg/L, respectively. Although bentgrass reduced runoff more than ryegrass (Linde, 1993), both turfs, when maintained as a golf fairway, did not allow significant transport of NO3-N, phosphate, or total Kjeldahl-N.

Keywords: Bentgrass, Ryegrass, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Fertilizer, Surface Runoff, Overland Flow


1 Introduction

The assessment of nutrient transport for turfgrass systems is essential for developing environmental models that determine potential nonpoint impacts of nutrient management on water quality. However, limited information regarding nutrient transport from turfgrass systems has been published. Balogh and Watson (1992) stated “government agencies regulating the allocation of water resources and environmental impacts of turfgrass systems currently are using simulation software that is not specifically modified for turfgrass conditions.”

Golf courses have a potential for nutrient transport because of large areas, mainly fairways, of intensely maintained turfgrass. To better determine this potential, nutrient transport needs to be assessed for turfs maintained as a golf fairway.

Two turfgrasses commonly used for golf fairways in the northeastern and pacific northwestern U.S. are creeping bentgrass and perennial ryegrass. Creeping bentgrass is a fine-textured, stoloniferous (produces above-ground stems called stolons) species, which, when closely mowed, forms a turf with superior shoot density (>200 shoots/dm2) and turfgrass quality (Turgeon, 1985). Also, creeping bentgrass has a

Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf. Edited by A.J. Cochran and M.R. Farrally. Published in 1994 by E & FN Spon, London. ISBN 0 419 18790 1

-489-

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