Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf

By A. J. Cochran; M. R. Farrally | Go to book overview

77

Fate and mobility of pre-emergent herbicides in turfgrass

H.D. Niemczyk and A.A. Krause

OARDC/The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio, USA

Abstract

Much of the ground water quality concern, related to the use of herbicides on golfcourses, is based on extrapolation from agricultural situations rather than data developed from studies conducted in field turfgrass situations. To address this data gap, a two-year field project evaluating the behavior and mobility of the commonly used preemergent herbicides, benfluralin, trifluralin, bensulide, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, and DCPA with its two metabolites was conducted at OARDC/The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio, in 1988-89. Plots were located on a site with thatch (WT) and one with no thatch (NT) to further clarify the impact of thatch on herbicide behavior. Treatments were applied in April and samples of thatch and four zones of soil (0-2.5, 2.5-5, 7.5-10 and 22.5-25 cm) were collected throughout the year and analyzed for residue dissipation. Residues of pendimethalin, benfluralin, and trifluralin in the 22.5-25 cm zone were below the limit of determination. No detectable oxadiazon residues were found in this zone at the WT site in 1988 but on two occasions, residues of 0.01 and 0.02 kg/ha were found in 1989. At the NT site, residues in this zone on one occasion were 0.02 kg/ha in 1988 and none in 1989. Residues of bensulide in the same zone ranged not detectable (ND)-0.02 kg/ha in both locations. The DCPA residues in the 22.5-25 cm zone ranged ND-0.10 kg/ha (WT), ND-0.27 kg/ha (NT) in 1988, and ND-0.02 kg/ha (WT), ND-0.04 kg/ha (NT) in 1989. The residues of SDS 1449, the less stable of two dacthal metabolites, were very low but higher in 1988 than in 1989 in both locations. The SDS 954 residues in 22.5-25 cm zone ranged ND-0.1 kg/ha (WT), and ND-0.16 kg/ha (NT) in 1988, and ND-0.26 kg/ha (WT), and ND-0.27 kg/ha (NT) in 1989.

Some amount of all herbicides applied carried over into the spring of the year following application but oxadiazon and bensulide were the most persistent.

Keywords: thatch, benfluralin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bensulide, oxadiazon, DCPA, leaching


1 Introduction

The vertical mobility of pesticides is influenced by many factors including the properties of the pesticide, the medium to which they are applied and the frequency-intensity of precipitation or irrigation. Computer simulation has enabled many researchers to study the impact of these and other factors on mobility in soil (Enfield et al. 1982, Carsel et al. 1984, Knisel and Leonard 1986, Wagenet and Hutson 1989). Theoretical screening techniques have also been developed (Dean et al. 1984, Rao et al. 1985, Wilkerson and Kim 1986, Jury et al. 1987, Gustafson 1989) to identify compounds with high leaching potential. Field data are needed to calibrate such models and verify their applicability to the turfgrass situation. Turfgrass field studies on vertical mobility and persistence of some insecticides (Kuhr and Tashiro, 1978, Niemczyk et al., 1977, Sears and Chapman, 1979, Niemczyk and Krueger, 1987, Petrovic et al., 1993) have been reported. While Gold et al. (1988) and Petrovic et al. (1993a) reported on the leaching of the postemergence herbicides 2, 4-D and mecoprop, except for studies of Stahnke et al. (1991) on pendimethalin, relatively little field data developed in established (≥5 years) turfgrass situations, have been published on the preemergent herbicides most commonly used on turfgrasses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate fate and mobility of these herbicides in turfgrass.

Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf. Edited by A.J. Cochran and M.R. Farrally. Published in 1994 by E & FN Spon, London. ISBN 0 419 18790 1

-511-

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