Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf

By A. J. Cochran; M. R. Farrally | Go to book overview

88

Spectators' views of PGA golf events

H. Hansen and R. Gauthier

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada

Abstract

3019 spectators attending six PGA golf tournaments rated the relative importance of 27 reasons to attend on a five point Likert scale; spectators provided three phrases describing their thoughts of the event and they completed demographic data categories. The internal consistency of the scale was 0.902 as measured by Cronbach Alpha. ANOVA followed by the Tukey test was used to seek differences between groups based on gender, age, and golf playing frequency with an alpha level set at .05. Several differences per grouping were found resulting in the following observations: (1) non-golfers/infrequent golfers attended because of reasons such as scenery, fitness benefits, event image, and golfer personality; (2) being close to the field of competition highlights the learning aspect of spectating; (3) an entertainment focus appeals to females whereas a learning focus attracts males; (4) market segmentation can be implemented based on study results; (5) the “scenery aspect” differentiated the PGA spectators from other tours spectators.

Keywords: Golf, Spectator Research, Sport Marketing.


1 Introduction

Studies of the factors affecting attendance at professional sport events involves demand studies which focus on reasons why spectators attend games of primarily team sports (Schofield, 1983). In a recent study of six professional leagues eleven attendance factors were isolated as well as differences found between baseball, football and indoor soccer (Hansen & Gauthier, 1989). However the literature contains but a few studies of spectator reasons to attend golf events or factors affecting attendance at golf events (Gauthier & Hansen, 1993; Hansen & Gauthier, 1993; Cuneen & Hannan, 1993). Trade journals and popular press account for much of the information pertaining to the golf industry and specifically to the professional tours, however little or no attention is given to spectators' views of the sport

Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf. Edited by A.J. Cochran and M.R. Farrally. Published in 1994 by E & FN Spon, London. ISBN 0 419 18790 1

-596-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 643

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.