TERRY S. SZOLD
The authors of this volume address critically how regulations have been used to shape the built form of private and public space. They offer compelling visions for how the regulatory template has been applied or, more frequently in their opinions, misapplied. Whether one agrees with any individual commentator or not, one is struck by how many of our contributors-if from sometimes competing perspectives-contend that such regulations often fail.
Some of them believe that the marketplace, left to operate on its own, would produce better outcomes for society and the built environment than do the excessively restrictive (as they see them) regulations we have now. Peter VanDoren, Peter Gordon, David Beito, Alexander Tabarrok, and Bernard Siegan can be placed in this category. Others believe that deliberate policy needs to be shaped or applied in a manner to improve the quality of built form (Andrés Duany and David Brain), or to provide more equitable outcomes (Anthony Downs). Coming from what one might see as different vantages along a spectrum-fewer controls versus more controls-what this first group of commentators has in common is that they do not shy away from offering absolute prescriptions or commandments for development regulations.
However, many of our contributors are not quite so doctrinaire, and come not to bury regulations but to reform them. Jerold Kayden's forensic urban design research is intended to force planners and designers to think very carefully about a too liberalized approach to the granting of density rewards that create mediocrity in privately owned public spaces. William Shutkin and Virginia