Genetically Modified Crops: Assessing Safety

By Keith T. Atherton | Go to book overview

Chapter 1

The regulatory and science-based safety evaluation of genetically modified food crops

A USA perspective

Earle Nestmann, Todd Copeland and Jason Hlywka


Introduction

Genetic modification, otherwise referred to as recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology or gene-splicing, has proven to be a more precise, predictable and better understood method for the manipulation of genetic material than previously attained through conventional plant breeding. To date, agricultural applications of the technology have involved the insertion of genes for desirable agronomic traits (e.g. herbicide tolerance, insect resistance) into a variety of crop plants, and from a variety of biological sources. Examples include soybeans modified with gene sequences from a Streptomyces species encoding enzymes that confer herbicide tolerance, and corn plants modified to express the insecticidal protein of an indigenous soil microorganism, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). A growing body of evidence suggests that the technology may be used to make enhancements to not only the agronomic properties, but the food, nutritional, industrial and medicinal attributes of genetically modified (GM) crops.

Regulatory supervision of rDNA technology and its products has been in place for a longer period of time in the United States than in most other parts of the world. The methods and approaches established to evaluate the safety of products developed using rDNA technology continue to evolve in response to the increasing availability of new scientific information. As our understanding of the potential applications of the technology is broadened, the safety of products developed using rDNA technology and the potential effects of introduced gene sequences on human health or the environment will be more closely scrutinized. In fact, much of the knowledge acquired during the commercialization of the products of rDNA technology in agriculture is now finding application in evaluating the safety of products developed through more conventional means.

The objective of this chapter is to provide the reader with an overview of the significant events leading up to the present, science-based, regulatory framework that exists for the safety evaluation of GM food crops within the United States. An attempt has been made to discuss concerns over the sufficiency of existing regulations, as well as to highlight recent initiatives taken by federal regulatory agencies to address them. Through better communication of how the regulatory process functions within the United States, it is anticipated that current and future applications of rDNA technology in agriculture will be met with a greater level of understanding and acceptance.

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Genetically Modified Crops: Assessing Safety
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 261

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.