My decision to focus on Anglo-Vatican relations in the period of the Risorgimento for my PhD thesis was made when I found a number of articles on Pius IX in The Times and some cartoons in Punch, which led me to wonder why Britain was so obsessed with this particular pope? It was even more puzzling that a British diplomatic representative called him 'A good Pope'. Pius IX has the reputation of being one of the most controversial popes in modern European history, due to his declaration of papal infallibility and the immaculate conception of Virgin Mary, and his opposition to Italian unification. Why then at any time in his reign could he have been regarded as such a positive figure by a traditionally anti-Catholic state? This simple and curious question was the basis of my original PhD thesis and has now led to this book.
I could not have completed this book without help from numerous individuals and institutions. Therefore I would like to thank the staff at the following institutions for their assistance in my research: the Public Record Office in Kew; the Hartley Library at the University of Southampton; the Bodleian Library, Oxford (including the Modern Manuscript Room); the British Library (including the Modern Manuscript and the Newspaper Archive in Colindale); the National Library of Scotland in Edinburgh; Ushaw College in Durham; Westminster Diocesan Archives in London; Archbishop's House in Dublin; the Vatican Archive in Rome (Archivio Segreto Vaticano) including the Archivio Storico Congregatio pro negotiis ecclesasticis extraordinariis; the Archives of the Sacra Congregazione di Propaganda Fide, Piazza Spagna, Rome; the Archive of the English College in Rome; the State Archive in Rome; the Italian Foreign Ministry Archive in Rome; the Biblioteca Nazionale Storico Moderno e Contemporeneo, Via Gaetano, Rome, and the Instituto di storico per Risorgimento, Piazza Venezia, Rome. For access to the Vatican Archives, I am grateful to Sister Tesuko Nakagawa, former President of the University of the Sacred Heart in Tokyo from which I originally graduated, and to Padre Pittau, President (Chancellor) of University of the Gregoriana in Rome. I would also like to thank the staff of the libraries at the University of Warwick, the Institute of Historical Research, the London School of Economics and Keio University.
Records from the Public Record Office by permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationary Office. I would like to acknowledge the permission of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II to use quotations from the papers in the Royal Archive; Ushaw College for the Wiseman papers; the trustees of the Broadlands Archives Estate for the Palmerston papers; the Bodleian Library for the Clarendon papers; the Public Record Office for the Russell papers; the National Library of Scotland for the Minto papers, and His Eminence,