A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law - Vol. 2

By Raymond Westbrook; Gary Beckman et al. | Go to book overview

may be interpreted as a means to retain cultural identity.191 By the second century B. C. E., agreements were recorded in Greek as well as Demotic. Other groups organized themselves into professional associations for the payment of professional taxes and for social life.


9.2 Oracles and Oracular Questions192

Divine oracles were a standard medium through which disputes were resolved and in front of which oaths were sworn. Most of the evidence for the institution, written in Demotic, comes from the Ptolemaic period. In this process, a petitioner wrote out a question or a declarative statement in the negative and in the affirmative. The question was then split in two and submitted to the oracle. The statue of the oracle would either nod in reply, or one of the questions was handed back, providing the answer to the query. Children appear to have been important as media of oracular questions, as P. Dodgson from the Ptolemaic period shows.193


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allam, S. “Women as Holders of Rights in Ancient Egypt (During the Late Period), ” JESHO 32 (1990) 1–34.

Allam, S. “Egyptian Law Courts in Pharaonic and Hellenistic Times, ”JEA 77 (1991) 109–27.

Allam, S. “Papyrus Turin 2021: Another Adoption Extraordinary.” In Individu, société et spiritualité dans l'Égypte pharaonique et copte: Mélanges offerts au Professeur Aristide Théodoridès, ed. C. Cannuyer and J. Kruchten. Ath: Illustra, 1993, 23–28.

Allam, S. “The Agreement After Judgement.” In Acta Demotica: Acts of the Fifth International Conference for Demotists, Pisa, 4th–8th September 1993. Egitto e Vicino Orient 17. Pisa: Giardini, 1994.

Andrews, C. Catalogue of the Demotic Papyri in the British Museum, vol. 4. Ptolemaic Legal Texts. London: British Museum, 1990.

Assmann, J. “When Justice Fails: Jurisdiction and Imprecation in Ancient Egypt and the Near East, ”JEA 78 (1992) 149–62.

Austin, M. M. The Hellenistic World from Alexander to the Roman Conquest. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Baer, K. “The Low Price of Land in Ancient Egypt, ”JARCE 1 (1962) 25–45.

Bagnall, R. “The Beginnings of the Roman Census in Egypt, ”GRBS 31 (1991) 255–63.

Bagnall, R. Egypt in Late Antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Baldwin, B. “Crime and Criminals in Graeco-Roman Egypt, ”Aegyptus 43 (1963) 256–63.

____________________
191
Ibid., 161.
192
See 2.1.4.2 above for the bibliography on oracles.
193
The text comes from Elephantine. See further Martin, The Child…, esp. 206–9; Martin, “Demotic Texts…, ” text c18.

-855-

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A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents of Volume Two *
  • Part Three - First Millennium 775
  • Egypt - Third Intermediate Period 777
  • Bibliography 813
  • Egypt - Demotic Law 819
  • Bibliography 855
  • Egypt - Elephantine 863
  • Mesopotamia - Neo-Assyrian Period 883
  • Bibliography 907
  • Mesopotamia - Neo-Babylonian Period 911
  • Bibliography 968
  • Anatolia and the Levant - Israel 975
  • Bibliography 1042
  • International Law - International Law in the First Millennium 1047
  • Bibliography 1064
  • Indices 1067
  • Subject Index 1069
  • Index of Ancient Terms 1141
  • Index of Texts Cited 1161
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