OF A JEWISH-HEROIC TRADITION IN
EARLY ZIONISM, 1880–1900
Doch wenn dereinst dem Grab entschwebt, Zum Staunen aller Welt; Zum Siegeszuge sich erhebt Ein Makkabäerheld
Dann tönt auf Palästina's Au'n Von neuem Heldenstreit, Und Juda's Männer werden schau'n Verjüngte Herrlichkeit.
Heinrich Löwe, „Makkabäerlied “in Jüdische Volkszeitung Vol. 7 No 1 (2.1.1894)
The significance of symbols and icons, as well as their integration into collective consciousness through holiday festivities, monumentbuilding, and other practices is a well-documented element in the creation of nationally and ethnically defined collectives. This is a central element in the rise of modern nations and nationalisms.1 This chapter will analyze the modifications of Chanukah celebrations throughout the last two decades of the 19th and the beginning 20th centuries among Jews in Galicia, Congress Poland, and the Pale of Settlement, as well as the Russian metropoles (Moscow, St. Peterburg). These changes, it will be argued, were less an expression of widespread ethnic mobilisation but rather an instrument chosen by representatives of the early Zionist movement to politically educate two specific segments of the Jewish population: members of a more or less secularized bourgeoisie on the one hand, and children in educational____________________