Crusaders, Condottieri, and Cannon: Medieval Warfare in Societies around the Mediterranean

By Donald J. Kagay; L. J. Andrew Villalon | Go to book overview

A NEW LOOK AT THE FOUNDATION OF THE
ORDER OF CALATRAVA
Theresa M. Vann

Joseph F. O'Callaghan's doctoral thesis, “The Affiliation of the Order of Calatrava with the Order of Cîteaux, ” identified a significant gap in Cistercian and Crusader studies.1 The Spanish militar religious orders were not obscure, and previous histories of the crusades had mentioned them, usually as an afterthought to the better-known Orders of the Hospital and the Temple. But when O'Callaghan began his work no modern monograph of comparable critical scope focused on the native Iberian religious orders.2 The only other available secondary works were antiquarian or pietistic accounts in Spanish that catered to Calatrava as a noble order of chivalry. Unlike the Hospitallers and Templars, there was no published corpus of archival material for O'Callaghan to draw upon, and that lacuna still exists.3

____________________
1
Joseph F. O'Callaghan, “The Affiliation of the Order of Calatrava with the Order of Cîteaux, ” Ph. D. thesis, Fordham University, 1956.
2
Some early works on the Order of Calatrava are: Francisco de Rades y Andrada, Crónica de las tres Ordenes y Caballerías de Santiago, Calatrava y Alcántara (Toledo, 1572; facsimilie ed., Barcelona, 1980); Francisco Caro de Torres, Historia de las ordenes militares de Santiago, Calatrava y Alcántara (Madrid, 1629); Giuseppe de Zuñiga, Epitome historica dell'illustrissima religione et inclita cavalleria de Calatrava (Lecce, 1669); J. Fernández Llamazares, Historia compendiata de las cuatro ordenes militares de Santiago, Calatrava, Alcántara y Montesa (Madrid, 1862); and Honorio Alonso Rodríguez, Algo sobre la fundación de la Orden de Calatrava (Barcelona, 1917). Some later monographs are: Francis Gutton, L'Ordre de Calatrava (Paris, 1955); Derek Lomax, Las ordenes militares en la peninsula iberica durante la edad media (Salamanca, 1976), discusses the sources for the study of the Spanish military orders; see pp. 71–109 for a comprehensive bibliography; and Emma Solano, La Orden de Calatrava en el siglo xv: los senorios castellanos de la orden al fin de la edad media (Seville, 1978), pp. 23–50, contains an annotated listing of the unedited sources and a listing of the published ones. Subsequent articles on the Order of Calatrava includes Clara Estow, “The Economic Development of the Order of Calatrava, 1158–1366, ” Speculum 57 (1982): 267–291. Similar monographs about the Order of Santiago also exist. The most useful of the older sources remains José López Agurleta, Vida del venerable fvndador de la orden de Santiago, y de las primeras casas de redempción de cautivos (Madrid, 1731); and Bernabé de Chaves, Apuntamiento legal sobre el dominio solar de la Orden de Santiago en todos sus pueblos (Madrid, 1740; facsimilie ed., Barcelona, 1975).
3
O'Callaghan used Francisco de Uhagón y Guardamino, “Indice de los documentos de la Orden Militar de Calatrava, ” BRAH 35 (1899): 5–167, which indexed most of the unpublished documents of Calatrava in the Archivo Histórico Nacional (Madrid). Ignatio Josef de Ortega y Cotes, Bulario de la Orden Militar de Calatrava (also entitled Bullarium ordinis militiae de Calatrava) (Madrid, 1761; facsimile edition, Barcelona, 1981) contains the papal bulls issued to the Order. In comparison to the Order of Calatrava, more documents pertaining to the early years of the Order of Santiago have been published: a partial list would include Antonio Francisco Aguado de Cordoba, Bullarium Equestris Ordinis S. Iacobi de Spatha per annorum seriem nonnullis (Madrid, 1719); Derek W. Lomax, La Orden de Santiago (1170–1275) (Madrid, 1965); José Luis Martín, Orígenes de la orden militar de Santiago (Barcelona, 1974); Milagros Rivera Garretas, La encomienda, el priorato y la villa de Uclés en la Edad Media (Madrid, 1985); and Enrique Gallego Blanco, The Rule of the Spanish Military Order of Saint James (Leiden, 1971).

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