1766-1845. Austrian financier. Von Laemel, a wealthy wool trader, was ennobled for his financial service to Austria in the Napoleonic wars. He helped end the degrading Jewish poll-tax (1813) and reduce the Jewish tax in Bohemia (1817). His grand-daughter founded the Laemel School in Jerusalem.
1867-1939. Founder of Universal Studios. Arriving in the United States as an immigrant from Germany at the age of seventeen, Laemmle started with one derelict cinema and developed a chain of them. Finding it difficult to get a regular supply of films, he began wholesale movie exchange marts and then launched a small production company of his own. This led to the founding of Universal Studios and the building of Universal City in California, one of the largest film-making plants in the world.
In the early days of the industry, he hired well-known actors and actresses and lavished credits on them, thereby creating the 'star' system that has dominated Hollywood.
1893-1965. Brazilian statesman. Born in São Paulo, Lafer belonged to the prominent KLABIN family and was associated with its industrial interests. A member of the Federal Chamber of Deputies for nearly thirty years, he served as finance minister (1951-8) and foreign minister (1959-61). Earlier, he founded the National Development Bank and served as the Brazilian governor of the World Bank.
1679-1756. Italian scholar. Lampronti was a rabbi and physician in Ferrara, Italy. He produced the first Hebrew encyclopaedia covering in alphabetical order every aspect of Jewish law in 155 handwritten volumes. The first part was published in Italy between 1750 and 1840, and the second part in Germany between 1864 and 1887.
1866-1942. South African rabbi. Landau, who hailed from Galicia, became chief rabbi in Johannesburg, South Africa (1915), and professor of Hebrew at Witwatersrand University. He wrote Hebrew drama and poetry.
1908-68. Russian physicist and Nobel laureate, 1962. A child prodigy in mathematics, Landau had completed his formal studies in mathematics and physics at the universities of Baku (his birthplace) and Leningrad by the age of nineteen. He spent some years working under BOHR in Copenhagen, and returned to the USSR in 1937 to head a department at the Moscow Institute for Physical Problems. Landau developed theories on the properties of helium II and helium in in terms of quantum mechanics, and for this work he was awarded the 1962. Nobel Prize in Physics. He was also known for his low temperature research.
Landau's brilliant achievements, that earned him the Stalin Prize three times, did not save him from imprisonment for