Who's Who in Jewish History: After the Period of the Old Testament

By Joan Comay | Go to book overview

Y

YADIN, Yigael

1917-84. Israel soldier and archaeologist. Like so many others of his generation, Yadin had two careers: one military and one civilian. In both he reached the top.

He was born in Jerusalem where his father, Eliezer SUKENIK, was professor of archaeology at the Hebrew University. Yigael, the eldest of three sons, was drawn to the same vocation, but from the age of seventeen his studies were constantly interrupted by Haganah duties. By 1944 he was operations officer of the Haganah, and returned to this post on the eve of the War of Independence. In 1949, he took part in the armistice negotiations with Egypt and Jordan. Soon after he succeeded Ya'acov Dori as chief-of-staff, with the rank of Rav Aloof (major-general). During his three years in this position, the organization of the army took shape, with a small permanent force of senior officers and instructors, field units of conscripts, and reserve units that could be swiftly mobilized in an emergency.

In 1952, Yadin left the army and devoted himself fully to archaeology. He obtained his doctorate, taught at the Hebrew University from 1955 and in 1970 was appointed to the chair of archaeology previously held by his father. Through his excavations, articles, books and lecture tours abroad, he became known internationally.

Yadin's first major dig was at the eastern Galilee site of Hazor, the Ca-naanite city that was destroyed by Joshua in the 13 century BC, and afterwards became one of King Solomon's chariot cities. Even more spectacular were the excavations of the rock fortress of Masada overlooking the Dead Sea, constructed by Herod and later held by the Jewish Zealots (see ELEAZAR BEN-ANANIAS) against a Roman army until they committed mass suicide rather than surrender. The Masada dig was organized on a scale new in Israel, using thousands of Israel and overseas volunteers. Yadin also carried out exploration of the Judean caves near the Dead Sea and made important finds from the BAR-KOCHBA revolt of AD 135. His special field of research was the Dead Sea Scrolls, partly acquired by his father and partly by himself and housed in the Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.

Yadin's work did much to inspire the national cult of archaeology in Israel, since it confirmed and strengthened the consciousness of a return to the ancestral land.


YANNAI

4-5th century. Palestinian liturgical poet (paytan). Though Yannai apparently lived in Palestine under Byzantine rule, a few of his poems are decidedly anti-Christian. He wrote liturgical poems for every Sabbath of the year, some of which were discovered in the Cairo Genizah (depository for sacred texts).


YASSKY, Chaim

1896-1948. Medical administrator in Jerusalem. Yassky became a Zionist in southern Russia, where he was born, and settled in Palestine in the 1920s after completing his medical studies in Europe. He had spe-cialized in ophthalmology and in 1924

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Who's Who in Jewish History: After the Period of the Old Testament
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Maps vi
  • Author''s Preface vii
  • Glossary viii
  • Chronology xi
  • World Jewish Population in 1993 xxxv
  • A 1
  • B 34
  • C 76
  • D 90
  • E 107
  • F 125
  • G 137
  • H 152
  • I 181
  • J 187
  • K 211
  • L 223
  • M 241
  • N 271
  • O 278
  • P 282
  • R 292
  • S 318
  • T 361
  • Uv 369
  • W 372
  • Y 389
  • Z 392
  • Thematic Index 397
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