The Complete Critical Guide to Alexander Pope

By Paul Baines | Go to book overview

(m)

HORACE

Pope's optimism about the role of providence in this poem was to some extent a necessary counter to the disasters of his personal life, which was marked by several deaths about this period. Atterbury died in March 1732 and was given a somewhat mean funeral in Westminster Abbey. An even worse loss was that of John Gay, carried off swiftly but painfully by some sort of fever at the age of 47 (4 December 1732): Pope told Swift, 'one of the nearest and longest tyes I have ever had, is broken all on a sudden' (Letters III:334). Pope was one of the pallbearers at the funeral, again in the Abbey. Pope's mother died on 7 June 1733, at the age of ninety. Her death had been long expected, but Pope was evidently shaken. He asked his friend the artist Jonathan Richardson to sketch her 'expression of Tranquillity [sic]' in death, 'as the finest image of a Saint expir'd, that ever Painting drew' (Letters III:374).

Literary warfare continued from a different angle. Early in 1733 Pope had begun what was to be a series of 'Imitations' of the Roman poet Horace, setting out some major satiric conceptions under the guise of updating the earlier poet for the current situation [119-30]. Though Horace was sometimes regarded as the servile flatterer of a tyrannical emperor, his civilised, ironic manner was generally more congenial to Pope's ethic of moderation than the alternative satirist, Juvenal, whose exiled ranting is more akin to the more extreme aspects of Gulliver's Travels. 'Imitation' in this mature context does not indicate servility, but a sort of respectful appropriation and rivalry. Pope adopts the conversational and 'insinuating' mode of the Roman poet, whose work is placed on the opposite page from Pope's modern version, to give himself a voice of classic authority from which to comment on social issues. But the adoption of a Horatian position, while it stakes a claim and invites comparison between ancient and modern skill, is also ironic, for Pope is an outsider where Horace was a court favourite, and Pope has no patron whereas Horace was indebted to the emperor and other noblemen. The Horatian model was neither simple nor pacificatory.

In The First Satire of the Second Book of Horace Imitated (15 February 1733), Pope mildly assaulted Lord Hervey under the name 'Lord Fanny', alluding to his well-known effeminacy, and took a somewhat more virulent pot-shot at Lady Mary Wortley Montagu under what became her codename in his work, Sappho (the early Lesbian poetess). In suggesting that one might receive 'From furious Sappho scarce a milder Fate,/Pox'd by her Love, or libell'd by her Hate', Pope neatly encompasses two of the charges to which he had been giving a certain currency

-35-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Complete Critical Guide to Alexander Pope
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Editors' Preface ix
  • Acknowledgements xi
  • Abbreviations and Referencing xiii
  • Introduction 1
  • Part I - Life and Contexts 3
  • (A) - A Catholic Childhood 5
  • (B) - Forest Retreats 7
  • (C) - Literary London 10
  • (D) - Kings and Queens 14
  • (E) - Scriblerus 15
  • (F) - Epic Intent 17
  • (G) - Booksellers and Ladies 19
  • (H) - Works and Days 21
  • (I) - Twickenham 23
  • (J) - Shakespeare 26
  • (K) - Epic of Fleet Street 28
  • (L) - System and Satire 32
  • (M) - Horace 35
  • (N) - Letters 38
  • (O) - Laureate in Opposition 40
  • (Q) - The End 44
  • Part II - Work 47
  • (A) - An Essay on Criticism (1711) [Te I:195-326] 49
  • (C) - The Rape of the Lock (1712/1714/1717) [Te Ii:79-212] 65
  • (D) - Eloisa to Abelard (1717) [Te Ii:291-349] 77
  • (E) - Essay on Man (1733-34) [Te Iii:I] 82
  • (F) - Epistles to Several Persons (1731-35) [Te Iii:Ii] 93
  • (G) - Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot (1735) [Te Iv:91-127] 110
  • (H) - Imitations of Horace (1733-40) [Te Iv] 119
  • (I) - The Dunciad (1728-42) [Te V] 130
  • Part III - Criticism 151
  • (A) - Pope and Poetry 153
  • (B) - Politics 163
  • (C) - Gender and Body 171
  • (D) - Pope in Print and Manuscript 189
  • Bibliography 205
  • Index 215
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 221

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.