How Children Understand War and Peace: A Call for International Peace Education

By Amiram Raviv; Louis Oppenheimer et al. | Go to book overview

There is a lot more to say about the topic of this chapter. For example, throughout the chapter I have been discussing children's concepts of peace and war as if they were one concept. This is not true. Peace and war constitute two very different concepts that are linked to each other in a complex way in children's minds. Particularly when the concepts are related to peer relationships, as has been done in this chapter, their different characteristics are relevant. However, the details around and behind this statement are another story.


REFERENCES

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Bem, S. L. (1993). The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Berndt, T. J. (1981). Relations between social cognition, nonsocial cognition, and social behaviour: The case of friendship. In J. H. Flavell & L. Ross (Eds.), Social cognitive development (pp. 176–199). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Berndt, T. J. (1982). The features and effects of friendship in early adolescence. Child Development, 53, 1447–1460.

Berndt, T. J. (1989). Contributions of peer relationships to children's development. In T. J. Berndt & G. W. Ladd, Peer relationships in child development (pp. 407–416). New York: Wiley.

Bigelow, B. J. (1977). Children's friendship expectations: A cognitivedevelopmental study. Child Development, 48, 246–253.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989). Ecological systems theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Six theories of child development: Revised formulations and current issues (pp. 85–146). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Bruner, J. (1986). Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Cairns, E., McClenahan, C., & Hosin, A. (1996). The impact of political violence on children's ideas about peace: Evidence from Northern Ireland. In S. Hägglund, I. Hakvoort, & L. Oppenheimer (Eds.), Research on children and peace: International perspectives (pp. 28–38). (Reports from the Department of Education and Educational Research, Report No. 1996:04). Göteborg, Sweden: Göteborg University.

Cole, M. (1988). Cross-cultural research in the socio-historic tradition. Human Development, 31, 137–157.

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