I acknowledge and thank the following organizations and foundations that provided financial support of my research for this book: the John M. Olin Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, the Smith Richardson Foundation, International Security Studies at Yale University, and the Yale University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
My research on this subject began in earnest in 1994. Since then, I have visited twenty-three private and public archives in four different countries and dozens of university libraries. This research would not have been possible without the generous cooperation and assistance from the staffs of these various organizations. The following institutions and individuals have granted permission for me to cite and quote from the documents in their possession: in the United Kingdom, the Lord Ironside, Lady Avon, Mr. John Simon, the Special Collections of the University of Birmingham, the Churchill Archives Centre of Churchill College Cambridge, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College Cambridge, the Bodleian Library of Oxford University, the British Library, and the Trustees of the National Maritime Museum at Greenwich, London, and the Trustees of the Chevening Estate and the Center for Kentish Studies in Maidstone, Kent; in France, the Centre Historique of the Archives Nationales, the Archives Historique at the Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, the Service Historique of the Marine Nationale, the Service Historique of the Armée de la Terre, and the Service Historique of the Armée de l'Air; in Italy, the Servizio Storico Archivi e Documentazione of the Ministero degli Affari Esteri, the Archivio Centrale dello State, the Ufficio Storico of the Marina Militare, the Ufficio Storico of the Stato Maggiore dell 'Esercito, and the Ufficio Storico of the Aeronautica; and in the United States, the Houghton Library at Harvard University, the