Sisterhood Questioned? Race, Class, and Internationalism in the American and British Women's Movements, c.1880s-1970s

By Christine Bolt | Go to book overview

Notes

1 Introduction
1
F. Kennedy, San Francisco Examiner, 17 September 1985, Folder 1, Florynce Kennedy Papers, The Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America (in future SL), Radcliffe College, Cambridge, MA; interview with Catherine Conroy by Elizabeth Balanoff, Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, The University of Michigan, Wayne State University, Oral History Project, The Twentieth Century Trade Union Woman: Vehicle for Social Change, 1978, p. 56, SL.
2
First wave feminism is a term of convenience applied to women's activism from approximately the 1840s to 1920. Second wave feminism is shorthand for the women's movements which developed from the 1960s, and the phrase implies that feminism was moribund in the period between the two waves. Throughout this book, however, the continuity of feminist activism is underlined, and the significance of the interwar years of the twentieth century is stressed. Although the emphases within feminism changed over time, while the term was not widely used until the early 1900s, I have taken it generally to mean the advocacy of women's self-definition, personal autonomy and collective consciousness; promotion of respect for women's distinctive qualities and needs; and a search for equality with men regarding opportunities, rights and esteem. I have included in the women's movements both individual feminists and their associations, and women reformers - usually called social or welfare feminists by historians - who pursued women's interests in separate all-female groups or alongside men.
3
V. L. Ruiz and E. C. DuBois (eds), Unequal Sisters: A Multi-Cultural Reader in U.S. Women's History, New York, Routledge, 1994, second edition, p. xii; A. Basu (ed.), The Challenge of Local Feminisms: Women's Movements in Global Perspective, Boulder, CO, San Francisco and Oxford, Westview Press, 1995.
4
Christine Bolt, The Women's Movement in the United States and Britain from the 1790s to the 1920s, London and Amherst, Wheatsheaf and the University of Massachusetts Press, 1993, pp. 87-95; Christine Bolt, Feminist Ferment: 'The Woman Question' in the USA and England, 1870-1940, London, UCL Press, 1985, chapter 1; and see also O. Banks, Faces of Feminism: A Study of Feminism as a Social Movement, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1986, Part II. The vote was a broadly unifying issue despite the well publicised differences between its advocates.
5
Interview with Mrs Hazel Hunkins-Hallinan, in Tapes of Interviews on British Women's History in the 20th Century, recorded by Brian Harrison (Corpus Christi College, Oxford), from 1974 onwards, and financed by the Social Science Research Council, Tape 10, 8 February 1975, The Women's Library, London (in future WL).

-191-

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Sisterhood Questioned? Race, Class, and Internationalism in the American and British Women's Movements, c.1880s-1970s
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgements vii
  • Abbreviations ix
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - The Setting, 1880s-1914 6
  • 3 - The Impact of the First World War 28
  • 4 - Feminist Internationalism and Nationalism Between the Wars 51
  • 5 - Feminism and Race, 1920s-1930s 76
  • 6 - Feminism and Class During the Interwar Years 106
  • 7 - The Second World War 138
  • 8 - The Post-War Women's Movements 163
  • 9 - Conclusion 182
  • Notes 191
  • Index 252
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