Most Latin word sounds have corresponding English word sounds, following the same rules for short and long pronunciation of vowels. For example, the long a in father is the same sound as the long a in the Latin word pater. The short a in the English words par and far are very similar in sound to that of the Latin words pax and fax. The short e in pet is similar in sound to the Latin et, as the short i in twig is the same as the i in the Latin word signum. The long o in Ohio sounds very much like the o in the Latin word dolor. In the same way, the short o in pot is pronounced similarly to the short o in populas. Likewise, the Latin u in runa and pudicus, one long and the other short, sound the same as the long and short u vowels in rude and put.
The reader should also keep in mind that in Latin, unlike English, all syllables in words are pronounced, including the final e and es of words, such as arte and artes, duce and duces, fide and fides, opinione, and legiones, and the like.
With respect to Latin consonants, one should nearly always pronounce them as those in English (e.g., b = b, d = d, f = f, l = l, m = m, n = n, p = p, r = r, s = s, t = t, etc.), with the exception of c , g, h, and v, which are always pronounced like k (as in kirk), g (as in give, gave, and go), h (as in hard), and w (as in we and was) respectively. The letters i-j, when placed before another vowel, such as iam/jam and ius/jus, are pronounced like the consonant y (as in you, yam, and use), not the consonant j. The convention of substituting the letter j for i when used as a consonant appeared after the Classical period. Although its use is vexing to most Latin purists today, for the sake of simplicity, its use is retained here.
Finally, with respect to vowel diphthongs, most Classical Latin linguists prefer to pronounce them as follows: æ as if it were a long i (as in pine); œ as oi (as in boy); au as ou or ow (as in bough or now); ei as a long a (as in weight); eu as eu (as in feud); and ui as wee (as in the French oui).