Naval Warfare, 1815-1914

By Lawrence Sondhaus | Go to book overview

CHAPTER FOUR

The ironclad revolution

The era of the armored warship began in January 1857, more than five years before the completion of the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia, when Napoleon III appointed Dupuy de Lôme director of construction for the French navy. Dupuy de Lôme himself had designed the first purpose-built screw ship of the line, laid down just nine years earlier, but after the deployment of the armored floating batteries at Kinburn (October 1855) he joined other French naval leaders in the conviction that the future belonged to ironclad warships. After his appointment he began work on a design for an armored frigate, and in November 1857 the plans for the Gloire were completed. In March 1858 the ship was laid down at Toulon, and Napoleon III authorized construction of another five ironclads of the same type, sparking understandable consternation in Britain and a resolve to respond in kind. Two years after their Crimean War alliance ended in victory over Russia, the leading sea powers were locked in another naval race. 1


The revolution in Europe (1858-62)

Just as Admiral Tirpitz, forty years later, believed that a strong German fleet could provide the diplomatic leverage to secure Britain's acquiescence in Germany's quest for a share of world power, Napoleon III considered a strong fleet essential to his goal of persuading the British to accept French schemes for a reorganization of Europe according to principles of nationalism. By the time the Gloire was laid down, France clearly had lost the race in screw ships of the line. France and Britain each had six purpose-built and twenty-one converted screw ships of the line in service, but France had only three more on the stocks and four conversions underway, while Britain had eight on the stocks and eight conversions underway. The French emperor felt the time was right to raise the competition to a new level. Dupuy de Lôme's Gloire was roughly the same length and breadth as a screw liner, with three masts and a barquentine rig (later replaced with a conventional full rig). Its wooden hull was plated with 4.5 inches of armor. The ship carried thirty-six 6.4-inch rifled muzzle loaders, two on the upper deck and the rest below, divided evenly between two broadsides on the

-73-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Naval Warfare, 1815-1914
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Plates vi
  • Preface vii
  • Chapter One - The Twilight of Sail, 1815-30 1
  • Notes 24
  • Chapter Two - Continuity and Change, 1830-50 27
  • Chapter Three - The 1850s 55
  • Chapter Four - The Ironclad Revolution 73
  • Notes 104
  • Chapter Five - The 1870s 108
  • Chapter Six - The Jeune école 139
  • Chapter Seven - The Rebirth of the Battleship 160
  • Chapter Eight - The Dreadnought and the Origins of the First World War 197
  • Chapter Nine - Reflections on Deterrence 225
  • Bibliography 230
  • Index 237
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 263

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.