production, and inter-firm systems as well. It is anticipated, under such circumstances, that new architectures (for product, production and inter-firm systems) of the car industry will be established through dynamic interactions between ongoing attempts at modularization and emerging new technological innovations.
While we have thus far focused on the car industry, our framework of multiple hierarchies should be applicable for other industries. Any industry or business involves product, be it physical or service, process, and inter-firm systems. It is the architecture of each hierarchical system and interactions among them that determine the competitive climate and dynamics of the industry. We hope this chapter provides a valuable framework for further research across different industries.
We would like to express our sincere appreciation to the interviewees and the participants of the supplier questionnaire survey for their collaboration. We also thank Seunghwan Ku for his assistance and contribution in data analysis. This research was financially supported by a grant from Research for the Future Program of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research of JSPS, and the MIT International Motor Vehicle Program.