Diverse Responses to Common Challenges

By Fritz W. Scharpf; Vivien A. Schmidt | Go to book overview

Consequently, the political burdens of adjustment to international economic pressures fall harder on Australian workers' organizations than on unions in either New Zealand or Britain. Arbitration and efforts to maintain a social wage mean that competitiveness rests on some workers' willingness to accept lower wages than their underlying productivity merits. As Sweden in the 1980s shows, this is difficult over the long term. By 1996 it became clear that union members did not find this deal acceptable; union density fell considerably and union members did not support the ALP in 1996 in numbers large enough to win the election. Still, the ALP and ACTU clearly did a better job of ameliorating those tensions than did New Zealand Labour, which split in 1989, or New Zealand unions, which split in 1991. While the defecting groups were small, factionalization in New Zealand and Britain gave parties on the right parliamentary majorities and power. Later in Britain, by contrast, Blair's Australianization of Labour returned it to power.

Economically, Australia continues to accumulate foreign debt, which now stands at over 40 percent of GDP. But most of this is private debt, and so falls on business. For some time it looked as if Australia was repeating New Zealand's error from the 1970s and delaying adjustment by borrowing. But New Zealand's ongoing and growing reliance on foreign investment indicates that both countries continue to rely on foreign capital for growth. In this respect, nothing has changed since the nineteenth century.


References

Bagnall, Diana (1998). 'How to Cure a Sick System', Bulletin, 31 Mar. 1998, 19-21.

BIE (Bureau of Industry Economics) (1983). Research Report No. 12, Structural Adjustment in the Australian White-Goods Industry. Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service.

Blondal, Gisli (1986). Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Boston, Jonathan (1984). Incomes Policy in New Zealand 1968-1984. Wellington: Victoria University Press.

Bray, Mark, and Nielsen, David (1996). 'Industrial Relations and the Relative Autonomy of the State', in Francis Castles, Rolf Gerritsen, and Jack Vowles (eds.), The Great Experiment. Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 68-87.

Buchanan, John, Van Barneveld, Kristin, O'Loughlin, Toni, and Pragnell, Brad (1997). 'Wages Policy and Wage Determination in 1996'. Journal of Industrial Relations, 39: 96-119.

-126-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Diverse Responses to Common Challenges
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Welfare and Work in the Open Economy iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents ix
  • List of Figures xi
  • List of Tables xiv
  • Abbreviations xvii
  • Notes on Contributors xviii
  • References 17
  • 2 Restructuring the British Welfare State: Between Domestic Constraints and Global Imperatives 19
  • References 63
  • 3 Internationalization and Two Liberal Welfare States Australia and New Zealand 69
  • References 126
  • References 170
  • References 255
  • References 301
  • 7 France Directing Adjustment? 308
  • References 346
  • References 395
  • References 461
  • 10 A Fine Balance Women's Labor Market Participation in International Comparison 467
  • References 508
  • 11 Any Way Out of 'Exit from Work'? Reversing the Entrenched Pathways of Early Retirement 511
  • References 548
  • References 592
  • 13 Adjusting National Tax Policy to Economic Internationalization Strategies and Outcomes 597
  • References 641
  • Index 647
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 656

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.