Women and American Politics: New Questions, New Directions

By Susan J. Carroll | Go to book overview

parallel developments in some post-industrial democracies, but not everywhere (Inglehart and Norris 2000 ; Rusciano 1992 ; Haavio-Mannila 1985 ; Listhaug et al. 1985). More comparative research is needed to map out and explain the reasons for this pattern more fully. In particular, cross-cultural differences point to the need to be aware of a broader range of systemic factors influencing the relationship between social cleavages and party loyalties, including the role of party systems and party competition, electoral systems, political culture, and the agenda and strength of the organized women's movement. A cross-cultural perspective also highlights the need to be aware of “top-down” explanations of gender realignment, based on changes in party/candidate strategies, policies, and images, as well as “bottom-up” explanations based on changes in men's and women's attitudes, values, and policy priorities.

Gender realignment has now become an established part of American elections, taken for granted by commentators, journalists, and politicians. It provides a useful frame or “peg” on which to hang different stories about the election. Nevertheless, we should not be seduced by the conventional wisdom as many assumptions surrounding this phenomenon remain underexplained, and the challenge is to provide fresh ways of understanding the complex relationship between gender, voting behavior, and public opinion.


References

Abzug, Bella, and M. Kelber. 1983. Gender Gap. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Aldrich, John H. 1995. Why Parties? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Andersen, Kristi. 1996. After Suffrage. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Baxter, Sandra, and Marjorie Lansing. 1983. Women and Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Bennett, Linda, and Stephen Bennett. 1989. “Enduring Gender Differences in Political Interest.” American Politics Quarterly 17: 105-22.

Bennett, Stephen Earl, and Linda Bennett. 1992. “From Traditional to Modern Conceptions of Gender Equality in Politics.” Western Political Quarterly 45: 93-111.

Berkman, Michael, and Robert O' Conner. 1993. “Do Women Legislators Matter? Female Legislators and State Abortion Policy.” American Politics Quarterly 21: 102-24.

Blondel, Jean. 1970. Votes, Parties and Leaders. London: Penguin.

Bonk, Kathy. 1988. “The Selling of the 'Gender Gap': The Role of Organized Feminism.” In The Politics of the Gender Gap, ed. Carol M. Mueller. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage.

Campbell, Angus, Philip Converse, Warren E. Miller, and Donald E. Stokes. 1960. The American Voter. New York: Wiley.

Carroll, Susan J. 1988. “Women's Autonomy and the Gender Gap: 1980 and 1982.” In The Politics of the Gender Gap, ed. Carol M. Mueller. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage.

—— 1999. “The Dis-Empowerment of the Gender Gap: Soccer Moms and the 1996 Elections.” PS:Political Science & Politics 32 (March 1999): 7-11.

—— and Pippa Norris. 1997. “The Dynamics of the News Framing Process: From Reagan's Gender Gap to Clinton's Soccer Moms.” Presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Norfolk, VA.

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Women and American Politics: New Questions, New Directions
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Women and American Politics iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Figures ix
  • List of Contributors x
  • References 25
  • Part I Running for Public Office 31
  • 1: Accounting for Women's Political Involvement 33
  • References 49
  • 2: Campaign Strategy 53
  • References 68
  • 3: Money and Women's Candidacies for Public Office 72
  • References 85
  • Part II Other Aspects of Women's Participation in Electoral Politics 87
  • 4: The Impact of Women in Political Leadership Positions 89
  • 5: Women, Women's Organizations, and Political Parties 111
  • References 141
  • 6: The Gender Gap 146
  • References 166
  • Part III New Directions in Women and Politics Research 171
  • 7: Assessing the Media's Impact on the Political Fortunes of Women 173
  • References 187
  • 8: A Portrait of Continuing Marginality 190
  • References 210
  • 9: Broadening the Study of Women's Participation 214
  • References 229
  • Index 237
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