The Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great

By Henry Chadwick | Go to book overview

54 The Aftermath of the Council of Chalcedon: Zeno's Henotikon

The last decades of the fifth century were disturbed for the Roman empire in both east and west. In the west a succession of shortlived emperors, few of whom were recognized in the east, ended with all control passing into barbarian hands, first under Odoacer, then under his conqueror the Ostrogoth Theoderic. Theoderic's rule at Ravenna admirably restored order in Italy, but his independence of east Rome and positive determination to keep the Latin and Greek churches apart was resented by old Roman families and in 525 brought death to Boethius, his father-in-law Symmachus, and Pope John I. In the east the emperor Leo had trouble with Goths after he had murdered Aspar the senatorial leader and also his sons, which may presuppose that Aspar meditated making himself or a son emperor. Some anti-Arian legislation followed. Under Leo, Isokasios, philosopher and quaestor, was accused of paganism; after examination by the praetorian prefect he was forced to submit to baptism. Leo also legislated that Sunday be a day of rest undisturbed by music.


The Emperor Zeno the Isaurian 1

Leo was succeeded in 474 by a shortlived son and then by his personal favourite Zeno, an otherwise unpopular Isaurian. Zeno's power was precarious under attack from three quarters, namely Goths, a briefly successful usurper Basiliskos brother of his mother-in-law, and a fellow Isaurian named Illus, who was backing an alternative monarch.

Before becoming emperor Zeno had visited Antioch as a military commander and there discovered something of the ecclesiastical controversy. A former presbyter of Chalcedon, Peter the Fuller, came to Antioch and acquired a following of anti-Chalcedonian supporters, zealous for affirming in liturgy their faith in 'God crucified' (language painful to the ears of the emperor Marcian). Peter was the first to insert the (hitherto baptismal) creed in the eucharist (Theodorus the Reader, p. 118 Hansen). The old bishop of

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The Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The Church in Ancient Society iii
  • Prefatory Note vi
  • Contents vii
  • Abbreviations ix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1: The First Followers of Jesus 5
  • 2: The Jewish Matrix 13
  • 3: Jews and Christians Survive Rome's Crushing of Revolts 21
  • 4: The Hebrew Scriptures in the Church 27
  • 5: Interpreting Scripture 32
  • 6: Apostles and Evangelists 43
  • 7: Women Among Jesus' Followers 53
  • 8: 'Barnabas', Jewish Christianity, Trouble at Corinth 56
  • 9: Ignatius of Antioch 65
  • 10: Didache 84
  • 11: Marcion 89
  • 12: Justin 93
  • 13: Irenaeus of Lyon 100
  • 14: The New Testament Text 108
  • 15: Celsus: A Platonist Attack 110
  • 16: Montanism: Perpetua 114
  • 17: Tertullian, Minucius Felix 118
  • 18: Clement of Alexandria 124
  • 19: Julius Africanus 130
  • 20: Hippolytus and Liturgy 132
  • 21: Origen 135
  • 22: Cyprian of Carthage 145
  • 23: Dionysius of Alexandria 161
  • 24: Paul of Samosata 166
  • 25: Mani 170
  • 26: Plotinus, Porphyry 173
  • 27: Diocletian and the Great Persecution; Rise of Constantine 176
  • 28: Constantine 190
  • 29: The Seeds of Reaction 201
  • 30: The Church at Prayer 212
  • 31: Athanasius, Marcellus, and the Gathering Storm 226
  • 32: A Fiasco at Serdica 240
  • 33: Religious Division 254
  • 34: Athanasius' Return 260
  • 35: Constantius' Double Council of Unity 279
  • 36: Julian and the Church 295
  • 37: Damasus, Siricius, Papal Authority, Synesius of Cyrene 314
  • 38: Basil of Caesarea (Cappadocia) 331
  • 39: Ambrose 348
  • 40: Ambrosiaster 379
  • 41: Donatism 382
  • 42: Monks: The Ascetic Life 394
  • 43: Messalians 411
  • 44: Schism at Antioch 415
  • 45: Jerome and Rufinus 433
  • 46: Pelagius, Caelestius, and the Roman See in Gaul and North Africa 446
  • 47: Julian of Eclanum 464
  • 48: Augustine 473
  • 49: John Chrysostom 479
  • 50: Innocent I and John Chrysostom's Honour 499
  • 51: The Christological Debate, I 515
  • 52: The Christological Debate, Ii 538
  • 53: The Christological Debate, Iii 557
  • 54: The Aftermath of the Council of Chalcedon 592
  • 55: Justinian, Origen, and the 'Three Chapters' 612
  • 56: The Ancient Oriental Churches 628
  • 57: The Church and the Barbarian Invasions in the West 633
  • 58: Pope Gregory the Great (590-604) 658
  • 59: Worship After Constantine 675
  • 60: Pilgrims 684
  • 61: Penance 688
  • Further Reading 694
  • Dates of Roman Emperors 714
  • Index 721
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