9 Conclusion: Morality and Realism

Any moral philosophy must take cognizance of the fact that it is promulgated in a political world, and of the possibilities and limitations that this implies. To its great credit, the Just War Theory has always recognized this fact. It is an attempt—an heroic attempt—to combine moral principles with a pragmatic sense of political realism; to forge a middle path between an introverted moral withdrawal from the political realm, and a Realist abandonment of all moral restraint. It insists, as Grotius says, that: 'Men may not believe either that nothing is allowed, or that everything is allowed'. 1

It is largely due to this daring conception that the Just War Theory owes its enduring power. It is indeed one of the few basic fixtures of medieval philosophy to remain substantially unchallenged in the modern world. It has seemed to many theorists and practitioners that the system of concepts developed by the Just War Theory provides the best, and perhaps the only, hope for the effective moral regulation of war. Yet I want to suggest in this final chapter that the Just War Theory has largely betrayed this promise. It has failed to provide a robust set of principles for effective operation in the political realm. Yet the collapse of the national-defense paradigm leaves us with a difficult question. If there is no valid justification for wars of national-defense, what personal moral response should we make in the face of international aggression?

The moral conception of self-defense depends, as I argued in Part I , on a very intimate set of normative relationships between the parties involved, and in particular on a moral contrast between the culpability of the aggressor and innocence of the defender. Within international relations, however, this contrast between aggressor and defender becomes subverted in a number of crucial ways. The first way in which this happens stems from the historicity of international conflicts. Disputed territories and rights almost always come with a history which in many cases casts doubt on the picture of an innocent

-189-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
War and Self-Defense
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • War and Self-Defense iii
  • Foreword vii
  • Preface x
  • Contents xv
  • Introduction 1
  • Part I Self-Defense 15
  • 1: Rights 17
  • 2: A Model of Defensive Rights 35
  • 3: Consequences and Forced Choice 49
  • 4: Grounding Self-Defense in Rights 70
  • Part II National-Defense 101
  • 5: International Law 103
  • 6: War and Defense of Persons 122
  • 7: War and the Common Life 141
  • 8: War, Responsibility, and Law Enforcement 163
  • 9: Conclusion: Morality and Realism 189
  • Bibliography 200
  • Index 209
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 214

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.