Francisco Franco, Augusto Pinochet, and Antonio Salazar were among the first to stir my interest in the question of democratization. So I begin with a small tribute to a minor unintended side effect of three long careers bent on the obliteration of awkward ideas. In more academic terms, it was the Latin American Program of the Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars that first gave me the opportunity to develop this interest. I owe special thanks to Abe Lowenthal, the first director of that programme, who entrusted me with the role of coordinating what became the 'Transitions from Authoritarian Rule' project. It was through his introduction that I came to know Guillermo O'Donnell and Philippe Schmitter, and the long roll call of distinguished scholars whose names appear often, both in that publication, and in the bibliography of this one. Many of them became long-term friends as well as mentors and sparring partners.
This volume reflects the many influences and activities that have flowed from that initial project over the ensuing twenty years. I became Editor of the 'Oxford Studies in Democratization' series in 1995, and I owe a special debt to Dominic Byatt who turned my often sketchy suggestions into a stream of serious academic publications, many of which have, at least indirectly, influenced the arguments presented in this volume. He also gently pressed me to complete this long overdue book, and he arranged for Amanda Watkins, Gwen Booth and Jane Robson to provide the support and advice I needed to finish the job. John Crabtree and Rebecca Vickers also helped me along, and my indefatigable secretary at Nuffield College, Sarah McGuigan, went well beyond the call of duty in her efforts to bring order to my jumble of draft chapters.
In fact most of the chapters in this book are updated and modified versions of journal articles and conference papers that have been in production over the past five years. For example, chapter one is partly based on an article that first appeared in the Journal of Political Ideologies in 1997, and that owes an intellectual debt to that Journal's editor Michael Freeden, as well as to Andrew Hurrell, Mark Philp, and Jerry Cohen. Chapter two began as a presentation at the Juan March Institute in Madrid in 1996, and saw