This book is the culmination of research begun nearly ten years ago. I am grateful to many institutions and individuals who supported it along the way.
Data collection was made possible by two substantial US National Science Foundation awards: SBR 9412531 (1994-7), and SBR 9710963 (1997-2000). These funds were supplemented with grants from the University of California-Berkeley Center for European Studies (1994,1995-7, and 1998-2000), the University of California-Irvine Global Peace and Conflict Studies Program (1996,1997-9), the University of California-San Diego Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation (1994-5), and the US Council for European Studies (1995-7). I am particularly indebted to Russell Dalton for spurring me to write the grants in the first place; to Wayne Sandholtz for continuous, unfailing partnership in administrating them; and to Neil Fligstein for being the right kind of sociologist at the right time.
I have benefited from the kindness and generosity of many good people. Jacqueline Souter, of the Research and Documentation Division of the European Court of Justice, devoted precious staff resources to help me compile data from the Court's archives. Yves Mény, then Director of the Robert Schuman Centre, the European University Institute, gave me friendship, office space, and institutional support over many years. William Schonfeld, longtime Dean of the School of Social Science, the University of California-Irvine, cheerfully approved my innumerable, and increasingly unreasonable, requests for leave. Nuffield College, Oxford, my present academic home, encourages productive research in an unusually effective way: freeing its Official Fellows of formal teaching duties. I have been fortunate to be at Nuffield under Tony Atkinson's benevolent Wardenship. Sir Anthony is the paradigm of what economists ought to be: interested in the economy.
A number of graduate students worked on the project: gathering, coding, and helping to analyze the data. I owe special thanks to Thomas Brunell (now Professor), Rachel Cichowski (now Professor), Margaret McCown (Ph.D. student at Nuffield College), and Markus Gehring (Ph.D. student at the Yale Law School). They are co-authors of Chapters 2 , and 5