I am indebted to Judge Robert L. Carter, Herbert Hill, June Shagaloff Alexander, and Dr. Eugene Reed for generously sharing their experiences, recollections, and/or files with me. The material they provided could not have been found in any library or collection. I am also grateful to other former colleagues and friends who provided me with background and anecdotal material for some of the episodes in this book, including Judge Jack Tanner, Vernon Jordan, Benjamin L. Hooks, Rochelle Horowitz Donahue, Mildred Bond Roxborough, Gloster Current, and Mabel Smith.
My lonely burden was greatly eased by Adrian Cannon, who manages the vast NAACP collection at the Library of Congress, and by Mary Mundy of the Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs Department, who helped me to locate many of the photos in this book. Also of invaluable assistance were staff members of the Presidential Libraries of Harry S. Truman, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson.
This book would probably not have achieved publication without the perseverant commitment and professional counsel of Farley Chase. It would not have reached final manuscript form without the technical computer skills of John Whyms, who rescued me from despair on more than one occasion. The Routledge team, led by Bill Germano, provided invaluable advice and assistance in the final stages.
Last but by no means least, I wish to thank three long-time friends who suffered through innumerable drafts with constructive criticisms while never failing to support my labors. Their faith sustained me despite numerous setbacks. They are Stanford Whitmore, Elliot Schrier, and Seymour Reisin.