Environment and Statecraft: The Strategy of Environmental Treaty-Making

By Scott Barrett | Go to book overview

12 Trade Leakage and Trade Linkage

The use of trade measures in [multilateral environmental agreements] has been and will continue to be an effective tool for achieving important environmental objectives. Non-paper by the United States Government (1996), submitted to the Committee on Trade and Environment, World Trade Organization (September 11, 1996)


12.1 INTRODUCTION

The theory developed thus far tells us that it is especially hard for the international system to supply global public goods. The punishments needed to deter free-riding, or to sustain efficient provision levels, will not usually be credible when the number of countries is very large. And yet I have also argued that the Montreal Protocol sustains full cooperation, or something very close to it. So how was Montreal able to do this? As explained in Chapter 8 , a favorable cost-benefit ratio helped. But so did strategy. This chapter and the next emphasize how the treaty manipulated the incentives to sustain full cooperation. This chapter stresses the importance of sticks; the next chapter emphasizes the need for carrots. It is really the combination of the two instruments that makes Montreal a success.

Of course, we have already examined the utility of sticks, and the problem of making sticks credible. And we have learned that credibility limits the level of international cooperation that can be sustained. But we have thus far restricted choice of sticks to choice of pollution abatement (reciprocity). This chapter considers the advantage in expanding the strategy space—in letting countries use instruments other than strategies of reciprocity for deterring non-cooperation. In particular, the focus of this chapter is on the use of trade restrictions.

Trade restrictions can do two things. They can be used both to punish countries that do not cooperate and to correct for a loss in the “competitiveness” of the countries that do cooperate. And it turns out that there is an intimate connection between these different purposes. Concerns about a loss in “competitiveness” help to make the threat to punish, and punish severely in some cases, credible. At the same time, trade restrictions are not a ready cure-all for every cooperation problem. They need to be dispensed with great care.


12.2 ISSUE LINKAGE

The problem with reciprocity is that it loses its strength as the number of countries supplying a public good increases. This is because, when limited to choosing provision

-307-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Environment and Statecraft: The Strategy of Environmental Treaty-Making
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 438

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.