Despite the affirmation that there is no one model of metropolitan governance, it is clear that (in addition to the broad principles which underlie any adequate system of democratic government - accountability, accessibility, representativeness, constitutionality, and protection of fundamental freedoms) a number of principles can also be applied in order to define the adequacy of systems of governance for urban regions in the 21st century. Classified in alphabetical order, these are:
Coherency: This principle states that governance must be intelligible to the electorate. A system based on a welter of agreements, complex formulae and compromised principles is inefficient. One of the main complaints is that nobody understands who does what. Confusion breeds indifference and apathy which in turn provide the ideal atmosphere for corruption and demagoguery.
Competitiveness: Governance must be associated with competitiveness. Urban regions are emerging as the main units in the world economy. As national barriers to trade fall, and as the factors of production become increasingly