Writing a book is both a lonely and a collegial process. Those many solitary hours at the computer terminal are balanced by interaction with many inspiring individuals who are generous enough to share their time and their thoughts, as well as to stand ready to ask the tough questions that are sometimes too difficult to face or formulate when working alone. There are many whom I would like to thank in this regard. Elena Jurado proved to be invaluable as a research assistant. Her scholarly contributions and enthusiasm for the project made an enormous difference to its rate of progress. Red Chan kindly helped with the translation of some Chinese materials into English. During my stay at Princeton University, among the graduate students, Phillip C. Saunders and Erica Strecker Downs engaged in an exchange of ideas and relevant research papers. The following either answered my questions, discussed the issues, provided materials, or offered important perspectives: Philippe Van Amersfoort, Philip Baker, George Black, Helen Brooks, Karen B. Brooks, Gregory Chow, Steve Coffee, Danielle Dilley, Adele Dion, John Everard, Richard Falk, Karen Fierke, Per Fischer, Jerry Fowler, Bennett Freeman, Charles Goddard, Guy Goodwin-Gill, Jonathan Hecht, Lord Howe of Aberavon, Jude Howell, Mike Jendrzejczyk, Sidney Jones, Stephanie Kleine-Ahlbrandt, Arlette Laduguie, Beatrice Larouche, Woo Lee, Kerstin Leitner, Tom Malinowski, David Malone, Susan O'Sullivan, Minxin Pei, Nigel Rodley, Tony Saich, Susan Shirk, Markus Schmidt, Sun Shuyun, Jeff Taylor, Caroline Wilson, Sophia Woodman, Rod Wye, and Phoebe Yang. I am grateful to them all. Numerous colleagues and friends in China were also of great help, but I have chosen not to name them.
Marc Williams of the University of New South Wales provided valuable comments on two of the chapters, and a period of respite (together with an opportunity to see Sydney's incomparable millennium firework display) during the last stages of writing. Colleagues and friends at Oxford University have also been generous in discussing aspects of the study at various crucial turning points. Dominic Byatt at Oxford University Press was particularly encouraging when I took the proposal to him, Amanda Watkins efficiently guided the manuscript through the editorial process, and Hilary Walford proved to be keen-eyed and conscientious as a copy editor. Avi Shlaim offered some of his worldly wisdom, which