friendly relations with Hobbes; but to the claim that that acquaintance was the cause of his spiritual downfall and death, the verdict can only be one of 'not proven'.
On 6 June 1681 the bookseller William Cooper began an auction of books from the library of Pierre de Cardonnel at his shop in Little Britain, near Smithfield, in the City of London. His printed catalogue nowhere mentioned de Cardonnel's name, describing the collection only as 'the library of a certain man of letters'; but in later years he published two dated lists of book auctions held in England—a method of sale he himself had pioneered in the 1670s—in which the name and date of the auction are clearly stated: 'Pet. Cardonnell, June 6. 1681'. 209 The identification cannot be in doubt, as several known items bearing de Cardonnel's signature are featured in the catalogue.
Some comments have already been made on the contents of this collection. The catalogue divides its material according to book size within two broad categories: 'Libri theologici' and 'Libri philologici'. In the former are many editions of Church Fathers; some works of medieval theology; a solid body of late sixteenth- and seventeenthcentury English theology; and a significant number of works of Hebrew scholarship (by Reuchlin, Lévita, Génébrard, Drusius, Buxtorf, and others), as well as the Hebrew texts already mentioned. Works of Arabic scholarship include the proverbs edited by Golius, of which de Cardonnel had hoped to publish Bochart's improved edition, the Arabic translation of Bellarmine's Doctrina christiana (Rome, 1613), and Erpenius's edition of the Arabic Pentateuch (Leiden, 1622). Curiously, however, there is nothing by Bochart, not even a copy of Phaleg. In the second category, works of classical scholarship and general erudition are well represented, as well as classical texts, neo-Latin poetry and treatises about poetry, and works on medicine, astronomy, and some areas of modern philosophy, along the lines already described. (A few items in the fields of philosophy and theology stand out for their unorthodoxy: the works of Pomponazzi, for example, or a complete set of the Socinian Bibliotheca fratrum polonorum.) The collection is weak in several areas, such as law, medieval and modern history, and geography, though it has some items in each of those fields. Contemporary English printing is not well represented, except in the area of theology; but there are some works of modern poetry, including Waller's Poems (London, 1645) and items by Carew, Randolph, Benlowes, Fanshawe, and Davenant. The great strength of the collection, from a modern bibliographer's point of view, is that it contains so many sixteenth-century Continental printings—overall, roughly half of the entire list. This shows that de Cardonnel was a serious collector