The Exodus Affair: Holocaust Survivors and the Struggle for Palestine

By Aviva Halamish; Ora Cummings | Go to book overview

Notes

1 CRISIS
1. In the spring of 1947 distribution of the Jewish DP population in Germany was thus: the American zone, some 157,000; the British zone, some 15,000; the French zone, some 2,000; in West Berlin, some 10,000; in Austria, some 44,000; in Italy, some 19,000 ( Proudfoot n.d., 341; Wischnitzer 1948, 264).
2. Major-General R. H. Dewing. To the British deputy War Minister. 18 August 1945. PRO. FO 945/599.
3. Wischnitzer 1948, 266. The statement was made by General Joseph MacNarney, who replaced General Dwight D. Eisenhower as Commander of the American Forces in Europe.
4. No accurate statistics are available on the numbers of people who left the camps. According to Slutzky, at the end of 1946, about half of the Jews in Germany were living in towns or villages ( 1972a, 1027). This is obviously exaggerated. In a report written in October 1947, two months after completing a 15 month term of office as advisor on Jewish affairs to the Commander of American Forces in Europe, Rabbi Philip Bernstein points out that in the summer of 1947 some 80 percent of the Jews in Germany were living in camps and DP centers and not in towns.
5. Head of the DPs Administration in the American HQ in Germany, General Stanley Michaelson, claimed that, based on military sources, 60 percent of the Jewish DPs would choose emigration to Palestine if they had the choice; 20 percent would choose countries overseas; 14 percent had not yet made up their minds and only 1 percent expressed the desire to return to their country of origin ( Bauer 1970, 202-203). In advance of the Anglo-American Committee, the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Agency (UNRRA) distributed a questionnaire among 19,311 people, of whom 96.8 percent replied that they would choose Palestine, and only 393 expressed the desire to emigrate to the United States ( Bauer 1970, 202).
6. An internal British document, 13 August 1947. PRO. FO 371/61821; Foreign Office. To Paris. 11 Sept. 1947. Ibid; answers sent by the secretary of the Jewish Agency's Immigration Department to people in Palestine, who requested certificates for their relatives. CZA. S6/1103.
7. Correspondence between the Foreign Office, which was responsible for the British zone in Germany, and the Colonial Office, which was responsible for distributing the certificates. 6 August 1947. PRO. CO 537/2277.
8. News Bulletin of the Jewish Agency Immigration Department (Hebrew), no. 56. 25 June 1947. CZA. S6/5045.

-275-

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The Exodus Affair: Holocaust Survivors and the Struggle for Palestine
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Illustrations ix
  • List of Abbreviations xi
  • Key to Coded Names xii
  • Foreword xiii
  • Preface xv
  • Acknowledgements xvii
  • Introduction xix
  • 1: Crisis 1
  • 2: "The Yanks Are Coming" 15
  • 3: Crescendo 26
  • 4: A Ship for All Jews 43
  • 5: The Bird Flew the Coop 52
  • 6: Seven Days on the Seven Seas 66
  • 7: The Battle 75
  • 8: Where Now? 103
  • 9: We Shall Not Land! 112
  • 10: A Floating Concentration Camp 122
  • 11: Not by Bread Alone 132
  • 12: In the Shadow of Unscop and Terror 140
  • 13: From Catharsis to Apathy 160
  • 14: The Last Weapon 171
  • 15: A Change of Scene 185
  • 16: Each and Every One of You is Dear to Us" 202
  • 17: They'Ve Done It Again 218
  • 18: All Jews Are Comrades 226
  • 19: The Second Aliyah 241
  • 20: Who, Then, Was the Victor? 252
  • Notes 275
  • Glossary 293
  • Works Cited 296
  • Index 303
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