The author would like to express heartfelt thanks to Professor Bernard Bell of Pennsylvania State University for his continued encouragement and support. The late Professor Emeritus Sidney Kaplan offered professional advice and personal anecdotes of an unparalleled nature, and Professor John Gruesser of Kean College of New Jersey aided my research in the writing of Chapter 1. Esther Terry and the Afro-American Department at the New Africa House at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst provided additional needed support. Thanks to Ben Davis. Special appreciation is due to the late James Baldwin whose encouragement and friendship touched so many people during his stay at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst.