Russian is transliterated according to the international system used in linguistics; see Comrie 1981, 286.
Arabic and Persian words are transliterated according to the system used by the International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies.
For the various Turkic languages I have mainly followed the transcription
system employed in the Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta (Deny et al. 1959-64,
1 : xivff.), with the exception of Turkish (of Turkey), which is quoted in the
official modern orthography. The other exceptions are: the voiceless velar spirant is transliterated by
The following remarks are offered as a rough guideline to pronunciation.
Long vowels are written as <ā>, <ē>, etc. The values of <ā>, <ē>, <ī>, <ō>, and <ū> correspond roughly to those they have in Italian or Spanish: [a:], [e:], [o:], [u:]. So do the values of all other vowels, apart from those noted below.
In Uzbek, Persian, and Tajik words, <ā> stands for a dark vowel as in English ball: [ :].
The Turkic languages have an unrounded, central /i / sound [I], transcribed as <ï> and written as <ı> in Turkish; its sound can be approximated by pronouncing German <ü> or French without rounding one's lips.