it is a pleasant duty to acknowledge the many institutional and personal debts which I have incurred in the process of researching and writing this book.
First and foremost, I am grateful to The Netherlands Institute of Advanced Studies ( NIAS), which granted me a Fellowship for the academic year 1993-1994. My nine-month stay in Wassenaar, The Netherlands, enabled me to complete most of the research and begin the writing of the manuscript. NIAS is a delightful institution with an administration dedicated to facilitating the work of the Fellows in every way possible.
In addition, the NIAS Fellows for 1993-1994 were a singularly congenial group, providing a degree of intellectual stimulation that scholars often hope for, but seldom find. I would especially like to mention two of the Fellows, Prof. Hans Blom, now the Director of the Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie, Amsterdam, and Prof. Piet de Rooy, of the University of Amsterdam, who were always ready to answer questions on the often difficult details of Dutch political history. I am also grateful to NIAS' director in 1993-1994, Prof. Dirk J. van de Kaa, and the NIAS librarian, Mevr. Dinny Young. Prof. van de Kaa combined managerial efficiency with a genuine interest in the Fellows' projects, while Mevr. Young worked tirelessly to fulfill the Fellows' many requests for interlibrary loan materials.
Much of the archival research for this project was done in three depositories, the Archiv der Sozialen Demokratie of the FriedrichEbert-Stiftung in Bonn, the Internationaal Instituut voor Sociaalgeschiedenis in Amsterdam, and the Office universitaire de recherche socialiste (OURS) in Paris. I am grateful to the staffs of each of these institutions, and especially to Dr. Wolfgang Gröf at the Archiv der Sozialen Demokratie and M. Denis Lefebvre at OURS. In addition, the history bibliographer at the Mugar Memorial