Medicine before Science: The Business of Medicine from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment

By Roger French | Go to book overview

MEDICINE BEFORE SCIENCE

This book offers an introduction to the history of university-trained physicians from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth-century Enlightenment. These were the elite, in reputation and rewards, and they were successful. Yet we can form little idea of their clinical effectiveness, and to modern eyes their theory and practice often seem bizarre. But the historical evidence is that they were judged on other criteria, and the argument of this book is that these physicians helped to construct the expectations of society — and met them accordingly.

The main focus is on the European Latin tradition of medicine, reconstructed from ancient sources and relying heavily on natural philosophy for its explanatory power. This philosophy collapsed in the 'scientific revolution', and left the learned and rational doctor in crisis. The book concludes with an examination of how this crisis was met — or avoided — in different parts of Europe during the Enlightenment. Historiographically, the book is directed at how the technical content of traditional medicine can inform its social functions.

ROGER FRENCH was Lecturer in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge, and a Fellow of Clare Hall. He taught in the universities of Leicester, Aberdeen and Cambridge, and for twenty years was Director of the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine at Cambridge. His publications include William Harvey's Natural Philosophy (1994), Ancient Natural History (1994) and Gentile da Foligno and Scholasticism (2001).

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Medicine before Science: The Business of Medicine from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Medicine Before Science *
  • Medicine Before Science - The Business of Medicine from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment *
  • Contents v
  • Introduction 1
  • Part I - Sources *
  • Chapter 1 - Hippocrates and the Philosophers 9
  • Chapter 2 - Galen 34
  • Part II - The Latin Tradition *
  • Chapter 3 - Medieval Schools 59
  • Chapter 4 - Scholastic Medicine 88
  • Chapter 5 - The Weakening of the Latin Tradition 127
  • Part III - The Crisis *
  • Chapter 6 - The Crisis of Theory 157
  • Chapter 7 - Resolutions 185
  • Chapter 8 - Enlightenment, Systems and Science 222
  • Select Bibliography 260
  • Index 270
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