Applications of Nonverbal Communication

By Ronald E. Riggio; Robert S. Feldman | Go to book overview

7

Working on a Smile: Responding to Sexual
Provocation in the Workplace

Julie A. Woodzicka

Washington and Lee University

Marianne LaFrance

Yale University

Scan any social situation involving both sexes and you will likely see differences in how women and men communicate both verbally and nonverbally. One nonverbal behavior concerns the fact that women tend to smile more than men. Indeed, numerous studies done over several years provide strong support for the finding that women smile more than men irrespective of whether the measure is frequency, duration, or even the size or kind of smile (Hall, 1984; Hecht & LaFrance, 1998; Henley, 1977; LaFrance, Hecht, & Paluck, 2003).

A recent meta-analysis showed, however, that the size of the sex difference in smiling is contingent on several factors (LaFrance, Hecht, & Paluck, 2003). In other words, women do not always smile more than men do. For example, women and men smile in comparable amounts when both sexes believe they are not being observed but women smile more than men when everyone is conscious of being evaluated. The sexes also smile in comparable amounts when they are in the same situation, role, or occupation. Both these contexts suggest that there are social expectations for women to smile and for men not to (LaFrance & Hecht, 1999). In fact, smiling women are evaluated more positively than those who do not smile (Deutsch, Le Baron & Fryer, 1987). Women smile more than men when the emotional climate is tense or negative than when the emotional milieu is comfortable and positive. That women smile more when the context is strained may spring from feeling greater obligation to try and do something to set it right.

-139-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Applications of Nonverbal Communication
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 310

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.