was an artist who made spontaneous, fluid, and highly inventive drawings. He lived with his family in Hayward, California, until he was sixteen, and did not begin drawing until late in life. Although he participated in an art program at Stockton State Hospital in Stockton, California, where he was a resident in the 1970s, it was not until he began making art at the Creative Growth Art Center, a visual-arts program for disabled adults in Oakland, California, in 1978 that his drawing became a major thrust in his life. His images rise out of a swirl of complex, deftly drawn lines. Mackintosh generally used felt-tipped pens, pencil, or chalk to create his drawings, with color (tempera, watercolor, or colored pencil) applied only sparingly. Early in his association with Creative Growth, his imagery often incorporated groups of human, generally male, figures. Later, he included representations of school buses and other forms of transportation, as well as buildings, animals, and other subjects, in his compositions, which are characteristically accompanied by text written in a rhythmic, indecipherable cursive script. Mackintosh, who not only suffered from mental retardation but may have also suffered from other psychological impairments, the result in part of fifty-six years of institutionalization, has received widespread recognition for his artwork.
See also Creative Growth Art Center; Outsider Art.
SEE ALMSHOUSE PAINTERS.
was a German immigrant who painted more than two hundred portraits throughout German communities in southeastern Pennsylvania and Indiana. Rendered in watercolor and gouache over graphite underdrawings, these portraits capture minute details of the landscape of German life in America. Attempts to elucidate the facts of Maentel's own life have been less successful, although certain landmark events are known. Johann Adam Bernhard Jacob Maentel was born in Germany to Frederich Ludwig Maentel and Elizabeth Krügerin. Tradition maintains that Maëntel served under Napoléon Bonaparte, and immigrated to Baltimore sometime between his father's death in 1805 and the appearance of a Jacob Maentel "Portrait painter" in the Baltimore Directory of 1807. About 1821, Maentel married Catherine Weaver of Baltimore. Based on portrait subjects in Dauphin, Lebanon, and York Counties, he may have already been living in Pennsylvania by 1810. A "Jacob Mantell" of Lancaster served in the Pennsylvania militia from September 1, 1814, to March 1, 1815, and was naturalized in York County a short time later.
In 1816 Lewis Miller (1796-1862) sketched two gentlemen in York County, both named Jacob Maentel, leading to some confusion about the identity of the artist. It appears that he was living in Schaeffers-town, Lebanon County, in 1830, where his name appears in the parish register of the St. Luke's Evan-gelical Lutheran Church, along with many of his subjects (Zimmerman, Bucher, Haak) suggesting that they were personally known to the artist. In Schaefferstown, his name also appears in the Zimmerman ledger books for purchases of paint and confectionery supplies. By 1838 Maentel was listed in the Indiana tax rolls for New Harmony Township, where he continued to portray members of the tight-knit German community.
Based on dated works, Maentel was active from 1807 to 1846, with only four signed examples. The watercolors fall into several stylistic modes, but all are