Protestant Missionaries in Cuba: Archival Records, Manuscript Collections, and Research Perspectives
Missionaries arrived first in June 1898 in scattered numbers, in the company of an army of conquest and subsequently in successive waves during the military occupation. And by the time U.S. military rule over Cuba ended in May 1902, no less than a score of Protestant denominations had inaugurated evangelical activities in Cuba, including Northern and Southern Baptists, Southern Methodists, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, the Disciples of Christ, Quakers, Pentecostalists, and Congregationalists.
In the decades that followed, both the number of North American Protestant denominations and the ranks of U.S. missionaries in Cuba increased. To the original Protestant denominations were added Lutherans, Free Will Baptists, Jehovah's Witnesses, Christian Scientists, Seventh-Day Adventists, the Nazarene Church, Mennonites, the Plymouth Brethern, the Berea Mission, Gideon's Band, the Salvation Army, and the Church of God ( Cleveland).1
The defeat of Spain in 1898 opened Cuba, all at once, to U.S. political control, capital penetration, and religious proselytizing. These were among the principal components of the North American presence in Cuba, both the source and result of U.S. hegemony through much of the early twentieth century. Missionaries formed part of a vast North American influx into Cuba: soldiers and diplomats, capitalists and col-