ONE FOR ALL
"Giving them [Jews] liberty, we cannot refuse the Lutherans and Papists."
Governor Peter Stuyvesant
The first groups of Africans and Jews reached North America by ship in the 1600s, separatey and under differing conditions. The first twenty Africans arrived in Virginia in 1619 as bound or indentured servants, to work for a predetermined time before receiving freedom. Other small groups followed. By 1654 when the first Jews arrived in New Amsterdam, the city we today know as New York, the black population there numbered about sixty. Along the Hudson River, outside of the settlement, large Dutch-owned farms were cultivated by black slaves. The Dutch mainly treated blacks humanely and with a sense of personal rights which