Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution, and Reconstruction - Vol. 1

By Hans-Peter Schwarz | Go to book overview

ernment under Poincaré had resolved on a trial of strength with Germany. There were a number of reasons for this. One of these was the fear that France might be unable to obtain more reparations from Germany in the years to come, particularly as inflation was destroying the prospect of significant cash payments. This made 'productive deposits', especially coal deliveries, appear even more important.

In addition, the French had failed to effect any decisive weakening of Germany. By the end of 1922, Germany was producing as much steel as it had done within its borders of 1913. French hopes of building up a significant heavy industrial counterweight to Germany had not been fulfilled, even though Lorraine had been restored to France and French capital was now in control of large sections of the steel industries of Luxembourg and the Saar. In the months before the occupation of the Ruhr, the entire output of French iron-ore mines was only forty-eight per cent of production in 1913. The refusal of German smelting works to process material from Lorraine or Luxembourg was partly responsible for this state of affairs.

However, French readiness for a 'showdown' was also a result of the Quai d'Orsay's analysis of the development of international relations: the Entente with Britain had become much looser; London was pressing for a reasonable treatment of Germany; finally, the German-Soviet agreement at Rapallo had aroused the fear of an alliance between the two 'losers' of the war, thereby endangering the French alliance system in central Europe.

The occupation of the Ruhr led to a form of cold war between France and Germany. A fresh wave of nationalism swept Germany, including the occupied Rhineland. The German government proclaimed 'passive resistance' (or 'social defence', as peace researchers were to name it fifty years later). Workers in the mining industry went on strike, while white- collar workers, managers and engineers refused to co-operate with the occupation authorities. At the same time, the German government finally ruined the value of the currency by making extensive payments in order to maintain passive resistance. The occupying powers reacted by installing their own transport administration and drawing up a demarcation line between the occupied territories and the unoccupied area. As in the first six months of 1919, the French military representatives on the spot, particularly the president of the Inter-Allied Rhineland Commission, Paul Tirard, began to support separatist groups in the territory occupied by France and Belgium.

The Cologne Zone continued under British occupation. Even here, however, there were problems. Food supplies were threatened as they had been in 1918; it was only after enormous efforts that the President of the Chamber of Commerce, Hagen, managed to bring vegetable and fruit imports in on the waterways from The Netherlands and the Palatinate. Inflation and unemployment increased dramatically, in Cologne as elsewhere.

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Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution, and Reconstruction - Vol. 1
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Prologue: Cologne 3
  • I - The Young Master Adenauer 1876-1906 33
  • Student Years In Freiburg, Munich and Bonn 59
  • Justitia Coloniensis 64
  • 'A Talent Takes Shape in Stillness' 69
  • II - The First Rapid Rise 1906-1917 83
  • The First World War 93
  • The Youngest Mayor in Prussia 105
  • III - The Mayor 1917-1933 113
  • The Rhineland Movement 1918-1919 133
  • Pater Familias 152
  • Modern Cologne 156
  • Political Recognition at National Level 164
  • 1923 -- Year of Crisis 172
  • 'the Mayors of Contemporary Germany Are the Kings of Today' 195
  • In the Maelstrom Of the World Economic Crisis 210
  • IV - In the Third Reich 1933-1945 229
  • Struggle for Survival 241
  • A Pensioner in Rh"Ndorf 269
  • 'It is a Miracle of God That I Have Survived' 281
  • V - The Party Leader 1945-1949 289
  • Dismissal by the Liberators 321
  • 'Adenauer's Seizure of Power' 329
  • The Party Leader 359
  • Towards the Federal Republic of Germany 382
  • The President of the Parliamentary Council 408
  • Setting the Course 421
  • VI - First Years as Chancellor 1949-1950 433
  • The Political Tableau During Bonn's Early Days 450
  • Adenauer's Political Machine 465
  • Strenuous Beginnings of Westpolitik 476
  • 'the Most Disappointed Man in Europe' 489
  • The Schuman Plan 504
  • 'that Bully Adenauer' 517
  • In the Depths of Unpopularity 555
  • Adenauer's Daily Life 570
  • VII - European Statesman 1950-1952 587
  • Europe 608
  • Western Treaties and Soviet Initiatives 628
  • 'the Wings of World History' 642
  • Warding off the Moscow Note Offensive 650
  • The Breakthrough: The Signing of the Western Treaties 665
  • Afterword 689
  • Notes 703
  • Archival Sources 735
  • Pictorial Sources 737
  • Published Sources and Select Bibliography 739
  • Index of Persons 747
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