Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution, and Reconstruction - Vol. 1

By Hans-Peter Schwarz | Go to book overview
Zones and the establishment of a united administration for Germany through a Control Council containing representatives of the four powers. Only this solution could save Germany in its old form. 'If it does not occur, the two halves of Germany will continue their inevitable drift apart.' If unity could not be restored, however, the 'second-best' solution would be to amalgamate the Western Zones and integrate them into Western Europe.2 Though these were the alternatives, it was impossible to predict exactly what would happen.Whichever alternative came about -- a reunited Germany or amalgamation of the Western Zones -- Adenauer wanted the same structures to be established to deal with constitutional and foreign affairs. Consul-General von Weiss sent an outline of Adenauer's views on this subject to his government in the form of a memorandum. This document is so informative, and gives such a concise version of the views expressed by Adenauer to several interlocutors at the time, that it deserves to be quoted at length:III Desired Solutions
Germany to suffer only minor border adjustments, especially in the East. Reason: its over-population, which compels expansion of an economic or political kind, inability of Russia and Poland to make use of the land they occupy.
The division into Zones to be removed. For as long as necessary, a Control Council for the whole of Germany to be appointed.
Germany to become a federal state which is as decentralised as possible. The central authority to be granted only as much power as is absolutely necessary for its cohesion. The seat of the control authorities must be moved to the west or south-west.
The political and economic focal point of Germany must be western Germany. A West German federal state must therefore be established, to include: the entire Rhineland, Westphalia, possibly Osnabrück, Rhine- Hesse, Rhineland Palatinate, at least part of Hesse-Nassau.
For the status of this state, the following points are important:
two-chamber system.
since the Ruhr is in this state, foreign countries must maintain economic representation with appropriate authority. This inevitably produces reciprocity with appropriate political effects.
If Germany's western neighbours believe they cannot do without special control of this state, the duration and extent of such control should be limited. Attention should be given to the possibility of replacing this control, after a certain transition period, by the sending of representatives from the states involved to the first chamber.
The duration of the occupation must be limited.
Mutual economic integration between Germany, or at least West Germany, and Holland, Luxembourg, France, Britain is the sole and lasting basis for a constructive solution which would bring a lasting pacification of Europe. The question of establishing common economic chambers is to be examined.

IV If the solutions outlined under III are not possible owing to the attitude of Russia, the measures cited under III must be taken for the three Western Zones. The comments under III 2-6 are then valid for this part of Germany.3

-382-

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Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution, and Reconstruction - Vol. 1
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Prologue: Cologne 3
  • I - The Young Master Adenauer 1876-1906 33
  • Student Years In Freiburg, Munich and Bonn 59
  • Justitia Coloniensis 64
  • 'A Talent Takes Shape in Stillness' 69
  • II - The First Rapid Rise 1906-1917 83
  • The First World War 93
  • The Youngest Mayor in Prussia 105
  • III - The Mayor 1917-1933 113
  • The Rhineland Movement 1918-1919 133
  • Pater Familias 152
  • Modern Cologne 156
  • Political Recognition at National Level 164
  • 1923 -- Year of Crisis 172
  • 'the Mayors of Contemporary Germany Are the Kings of Today' 195
  • In the Maelstrom Of the World Economic Crisis 210
  • IV - In the Third Reich 1933-1945 229
  • Struggle for Survival 241
  • A Pensioner in Rh"Ndorf 269
  • 'It is a Miracle of God That I Have Survived' 281
  • V - The Party Leader 1945-1949 289
  • Dismissal by the Liberators 321
  • 'Adenauer's Seizure of Power' 329
  • The Party Leader 359
  • Towards the Federal Republic of Germany 382
  • The President of the Parliamentary Council 408
  • Setting the Course 421
  • VI - First Years as Chancellor 1949-1950 433
  • The Political Tableau During Bonn's Early Days 450
  • Adenauer's Political Machine 465
  • Strenuous Beginnings of Westpolitik 476
  • 'the Most Disappointed Man in Europe' 489
  • The Schuman Plan 504
  • 'that Bully Adenauer' 517
  • In the Depths of Unpopularity 555
  • Adenauer's Daily Life 570
  • VII - European Statesman 1950-1952 587
  • Europe 608
  • Western Treaties and Soviet Initiatives 628
  • 'the Wings of World History' 642
  • Warding off the Moscow Note Offensive 650
  • The Breakthrough: The Signing of the Western Treaties 665
  • Afterword 689
  • Notes 703
  • Archival Sources 735
  • Pictorial Sources 737
  • Published Sources and Select Bibliography 739
  • Index of Persons 747
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