Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution, and Reconstruction - Vol. 1

By Hans-Peter Schwarz | Go to book overview

Europe

Amid the setbacks and humiliations Adenauer had to face between autumn 1950 and autumn 1951, he was able to claim a single success in foreign policy: the founding of the European Coal and Steel Community in Paris on 18 April 1951. He welcomed this development as a great 'foundation stone for the building of a European federation',1 an assessment which was to be justified by the subsequent course of events. But during the slow negotiations over the treaty and even its signing, his confidence appeared less well-founded. There seemed a danger that the Chancellor was pursuing a mirage, and even abandoning most valuable German industries to foreign competition in the process.

This, at least, was the view adopted by the Social Democratic Opposition. After the signing, Schumacher noted caustically that the European Coal and Steel treaty would extend the Occupation Statute by 50 years. The way would be paved for French 'right of disposal over the Germans'.2 Not surprisingly, East German propaganda was even more hostile, with some support from sympathisers in the West German Bundestag. Yet even in economic circles, Jean Monnet's plans were frequently regarded with scepticism. This cynical view was given clear expression in the Deutsche Zeitung und Wirtschafts-Zeitung:3

The Germans have made their heavy industry very productive through a cen tury of diligent work and clear organisation. For love of peace and in order to promote the unity of Europe, they are now giving these advantages up, down to a modest remnant. How far they will be allowed to use this remnant for themselves, the High Authority is to decide. In order to push through this core, M.Monnet has negotiated with great skill according to the theme: 'to the Americans in the background, pure dogmatism, to the Germans in the foreground, constitutional European ideology, and to ourselves on the main stage, the traditional French routine of cartel politics. Monnet's success in sailing a hyper-cartel in front of the Americans under the flag of a ban on cartels will be listed as a masterpiece of French negotiating skills in the annals of international cartel history.

Adenauer was well aware that such anxieties and views were widely held in the sectors of industry affected. Officially, however, West German industry gave the proceedings its blessing. The reason was significant, but had little to do with any enthusiasm for Europe: it seemed the only way to get rid of the Ruhr Statute and the intolerable burdens associated with it. Meanwhile the firms, industrial associations and unions exerted pressure from all sides to keep the anticipated damage as slight as possible.

As had been the case over co-determination, there was also opposition from the FDP and the industrial wing of the CDU. Pferdemenges and Henle had great difficulty in keeping their friends in the business camp

-608-

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Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution, and Reconstruction - Vol. 1
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Prologue: Cologne 3
  • I - The Young Master Adenauer 1876-1906 33
  • Student Years In Freiburg, Munich and Bonn 59
  • Justitia Coloniensis 64
  • 'A Talent Takes Shape in Stillness' 69
  • II - The First Rapid Rise 1906-1917 83
  • The First World War 93
  • The Youngest Mayor in Prussia 105
  • III - The Mayor 1917-1933 113
  • The Rhineland Movement 1918-1919 133
  • Pater Familias 152
  • Modern Cologne 156
  • Political Recognition at National Level 164
  • 1923 -- Year of Crisis 172
  • 'the Mayors of Contemporary Germany Are the Kings of Today' 195
  • In the Maelstrom Of the World Economic Crisis 210
  • IV - In the Third Reich 1933-1945 229
  • Struggle for Survival 241
  • A Pensioner in Rh"Ndorf 269
  • 'It is a Miracle of God That I Have Survived' 281
  • V - The Party Leader 1945-1949 289
  • Dismissal by the Liberators 321
  • 'Adenauer's Seizure of Power' 329
  • The Party Leader 359
  • Towards the Federal Republic of Germany 382
  • The President of the Parliamentary Council 408
  • Setting the Course 421
  • VI - First Years as Chancellor 1949-1950 433
  • The Political Tableau During Bonn's Early Days 450
  • Adenauer's Political Machine 465
  • Strenuous Beginnings of Westpolitik 476
  • 'the Most Disappointed Man in Europe' 489
  • The Schuman Plan 504
  • 'that Bully Adenauer' 517
  • In the Depths of Unpopularity 555
  • Adenauer's Daily Life 570
  • VII - European Statesman 1950-1952 587
  • Europe 608
  • Western Treaties and Soviet Initiatives 628
  • 'the Wings of World History' 642
  • Warding off the Moscow Note Offensive 650
  • The Breakthrough: The Signing of the Western Treaties 665
  • Afterword 689
  • Notes 703
  • Archival Sources 735
  • Pictorial Sources 737
  • Published Sources and Select Bibliography 739
  • Index of Persons 747
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